西班牙语四级真题翻译篇

归纳整理-西班牙语四级真题翻译篇

一、考查语法点:

(一)虚拟语气

(1)时态变化

1. Linda___________________(不可能收到我的电子邮件):otherwise, she would have replied.(2011.12-88)

解析:couldn’t have received my e-mail

本题考察混合型虚拟语气。otherwise提示我们句子后半句是与过去事实相反(事实是Linda没有

回复),因此用could+have+过去分词。句子前半句是在陈述一种事实,从句子后半句could have +过去分

词我们可以推断前面“没有收到我的电子邮件”也是在发生在过去,且对现在产生了影响(还没有收到回信),

因此这里用现在完成时,could have +过去分词。

2. Jane is tired of dealing with customer complaints and wishes that she _______(能被分配做另一项工作).

解析:could be assigned (to) another job (2011.6-88) 被动态

本题考察了wish从句的虚拟语气用法(can→could)和“分配某人做某事”的词组搭配,assign sb. to sth. 或者assign sb. sth.

3. You would not have failed if you ___________________________(按照我的指令去做). (2009.12-87)

解析:had followed my instructions/orders

【结构分析】本句的主语是You。谓语动词是would not have failed。if you had followed my instructions

是if引导的条件状语从句。

【要点解析】本题考查的是虚拟语气的用法。①if从句的虚拟语气考查,根据语法规定,如果主句中

出现would +have的形式,从句中应该采用had+过去分词的结构。②“按照……的指令”可表达为follow my

instructions/orders。③根据主句的would not have failed 结构就可以推断这是对过去事实的虚拟,那么从句则是had+done 结构,所以答案为you had followed my instructions/orders。

4. If she had returned an hour earlier , Mary _____________(就不会被大雨淋了) (2009.6-88) 被动态

答案:wouldn’t have been caught by the heavy rain

点评:本题的考点仍然为两个:第一个是考查对虚拟语气的掌握,情态动词+完成时的结构。第二是考查对短语be caught by 的掌握,意思为“被…所困”,另外注意对雨这个概念的修饰,一定要用heavy rain 而不是big rain 。

5. The victim __________(本来会有机会活下来)if he had been taken to hospital in time. (200

6.12-89)

答案:would have had a chance of surviving/would have been able to survive/would have survived。

解析:根据本句结构以是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。“有机会”可以用have a chance of...来表示。这样would have had a chance。“活下来”在此可用动名词“surviving”表示。

(2)(should) +do 、(should) not do ; (should) be done/ (should) not be done

1. They requested that ______________________ (我借的书还回图书馆) by next Friday. (2010.12-91)

解析:books I borrowed (should) be returned to the library 被动态

I (should) return the book I borrowed to the library

【结构分析】本题句子的主干部分分别是they 主语,request 谓语,后接that引导的宾语从句。

【考点解释】①request的用法。request v. 要求;当request表示“要求”时,引导的宾语从句要使用虚

拟语气,即(should)+ 动词原形。②定语从句。“我借的书”,the book (that) I borrowed;③单词的拼写。

归还return,借borrow,图书馆library ④本题就此题提供了两个版本的答案,但在表示“规定,规则”时,

被动语态更为常用。

【原句精释】他们要求我在下周五之前把借的书还回图书馆。

2. It is suggested that the air conditioner _____________________ (要安装在窗户旁). (2010.6-90)

解析:(should) be fixed/installed by/next to the window

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