全新版大学英语综合教程1课文原文课文翻译

Unit 1 Growing UP

Part Text A Writing for MyselfⅡ

When we are writing we are often told to keep our readers in mind, to shape what we say to fit their tastes and interests. But there is one reader in particular who should not be forgotten. Can you guess who Russell Baker surprised himself and everyone else when he discovered the answer.

我们写作时常常被告诫,脑子里要有读者,笔者所云一定要符合读者的口味和兴趣。但有一位读者特别不该忘记。你能猜出是谁吗当拉塞尔·贝克找到这个问题的答案时,他自己和别人都感到大为惊讶。

Writing for Myself

Russell Baker 1The idea of becoming a writer had come to me off and on since my childhood in Belleville, but it wasn't until my third year in high school that the possibility took hold. Until then I've been bored by everything associated with English courses. I found English grammar dull and difficult.

I hated the assignments to turn out long, lifeless paragraphs that were agony for teachers to

read and for me to write.

为自己而写

拉塞尔·贝克从孩提时代,我还住在贝尔维尔时,我的脑子里就断断续续地转着当作家的念头,但直等到我高中三年级,这一想法才有了实现的可能。在这之前,我对所有跟英文课沾边的事都感到腻味。我觉得英文语法枯燥难懂。我痛恨那些长而乏味的段落写作,老师读着受累,我写着痛苦。

2When our class was assigned to Mr. Fleagle for third-year English I anticipated another cheerless year in that most tedious of subjects. Mr. Fleagle had a reputation among students for dullness and inability to inspire. He was said to be very formal, rigid and hopelessly out of date. To me he looked to be sixty or seventy and excessively prim. He wore primly severe eyeglasses, his wavy hair was primly cut and primly combed. He wore prim suits with neckties set primly against the collar buttons of his white shirts.He had a primly pointed jaw, a primly straight nose, and a prim manner of speaking that was so correct, so gentlemanly, that he seemed

a comic antique.

弗利格尔先生接我们的高三英文课时,我就准备着在这门最最单调乏味的课上再熬上沉闷的一年。弗利格尔先生在学生中以其说话干巴和激励学生无术而出名。据说他拘谨刻板,完全落后于时代。我看他有六七十岁了,古板之极。他戴着古板的毫无装饰的眼镜,微微卷曲的头发剪得笔齐,梳得纹丝不乱。他身穿古板的套装,领带端端正正地顶着白衬衣的领扣。他长着古板的尖下巴,古板的直鼻梁,说起话来一本正经,字斟句酌,彬彬有礼,活脱脱一个滑稽的老古董。

3I prepared for an unfruitful year with Mr. Fleagle and for a long time was not disappointed.

Late in the year we tackled the informal essay. Mr. Fleagle distributed a homework sheet

offering us a choice of topics. None was quite so simple-minded as "What I Did on My Summer Vacation," but most seemed to be almost as dull. I took the list home and did nothing until the night before the essay was due. Lying on the sofa, I finally faced up to the unwelcome task, took the list out of my notebook, and scanned it. The topic on which my eye stopped was "The Art of Eating Spaghetti."

我作好准备,打算在弗利格尔先生的班上一无所获地混上一年,不少日子过去了,还真不出所料。后半学期我们学写随笔小品文。弗利格尔先生发下一张家庭作业纸,出了不少题目供我们选择。像"暑假二三事"那样傻乎乎的题目倒是一个也没有,但绝大多数一样乏味。我把作文题带回家,一直没写,直到要交作业的前一天晚上。我躺在沙发上,最终不得不面对这一讨厌的功课,便从笔记本里抽出作文题目单粗粗一看。我的目光落在"吃意大利细面条的艺术"这个题目上。

4This title produced an extraordinary sequence of mental images. Vivid memories came flooding back of a night in Belleville when all of us were seated around the supper table ─ Uncle Allen, my mother, Uncle Charlie, Doris, Uncle Hal ─ and Aunt Pat served spaghetti for supper.

Spaghetti was still a little known foreign dish in those days.Neither Doris nor I had ever eaten spaghetti, and none of the adults had enough experience to be good at it. All the good humor of Uncle Allen's house reawoke in my mind as I recalled the laughing arguments we had that night about the socially respectable method for moving spaghetti from plate to mouth.

这个题目在我脑海里唤起了一连串不同寻常的图像。贝尔维尔之夜的清晰的回忆如潮水一般涌来,当时,我们大家一起围坐在晚餐桌旁── 艾伦舅舅、我母亲、查理舅舅、多丽丝、哈尔舅舅── 帕特舅妈晚饭做的是意大利细面条。那时意大利细面条还是很少听说的异国食品。多丽丝和我都还从来没吃过,在座的大人也是经验不足,没有一个吃起来得心应手的。艾伦舅舅家诙谐有趣的场景全都重现在我的脑海中,我回想起来,当晚我们笑作一团,争论着该如何地把面条从盘子上送到嘴里才算合乎礼仪。

5Suddenly I wanted to write about that, about the warmth and good feeling of it, but I wanted to put it down simply for my own joy, not for Mr. Fleagle. It was a moment I wanted to recapture and hold for myself. I wanted to relive the pleasure of that evening. To write it as I wanted, however, would violate all the rules of formal composition I'd learned in school, and Mr.

Fleagle would surely give it a failing grade. Never mind. I would write something else for Mr.

Fleagle after I had written this thing for myself.

突然我就想描述那一切,描述当时那种温馨美好的气氛,但我把它写下来仅仅是想自得其乐,而不是为弗利格尔先生而写。那是我想重新捕捉并珍藏在心中的一个时刻。我想重温那个夜晚的愉快。然而,照我希望的那样去写,就会违反我在学校里学的正式作文的种种法则,弗利格尔先生也肯定会打它一个不及格。没关系。等我为自己写好了之后,我可以再为弗利格尔先生写点什么别的东西。

6When I finished it the night was half gone and there was no time left to compose a proper, respectable essay for Mr. Fleagle. There was no choice next morning but to turn in my tale of the Belleville supper. Two days passed before Mr. Fleagle returned the graded papers, and he returned everyone's but mine. I was preparing myself for a command to report to Mr. Fleagle immediately after school for discipline when I saw him lift my paper from his desk and knock for the class's attention.

等我写完时已是半夜时分,再没时间为弗利格尔先生写一篇循规蹈矩、像模像样的文章了。第二天上午,我别无选择,只好把我为自己而写的贝尔维尔晚餐的故事交了上去。两天后弗利格尔先生发还批改过的作文,他把别人的都发了,就是没有我的。我正准备着遵命一放学就去弗利格尔先生那儿挨训,却看见他从桌上拿起我的作文,敲了敲桌子让大家注意听。

7"Now, boys," he said. "I want to read you an essay. This is titled, 'The Art of Eating Spaghetti.'"

"好了,孩子们,"他说。"我要给你们念一篇小品文。文章的题目是:吃意大利细面条的艺术。"

8And he started to read. My words! He was reading my words out loud to the entire class. What's more, the entire class was listening. Listening attentively. Then somebody laughed, then the entire class was laughing, and not in contempt and ridicule, but with open-hearted enjoyment.

Even Mr. Fleagle stopped two or three times to hold back a small prim smile.

于是他开始念了。是我写的!他给全班大声念我写的文章。更不可思议的是,全班同学都在听着他念,而且听得很专心。有人笑出声来,接着全班都笑了,不是轻蔑嘲弄,而是乐乎乎地开怀大笑。就连弗利格尔先生也停顿了两三次,好抑制他那一丝拘谨的微笑。

9I did my best to avoid showing pleasure, but what I was feeling was pure delight at this demonstration that my words had the power to make people laugh. In the eleventh grade, at the eleventh hour as it were, I had discovered a calling. It was the happiest moment of my entire school career. When Mr. Fleagle finished he put the final seal on my happiness by saying, "Now that, boys, is an essay, don't you see. It's ─ don't you see ─ it's of the very essence of the essay, don't you see. Congratulations, Mr. Baker."

我尽力不流露出得意的心情,但是看到我写的文章竟然能使别人大笑,我真是心花怒放。就在十一年级,可谓是最后的时刻,我找到了一个今生想做的事。这是我整个求学生涯中最幸福的一刻。弗利格尔先生念完后说道:"瞧,孩子们,这就是小品文,懂了没有。这才是── 知道吗── 这才是小品文的精髓,知道了没有。祝贺你,贝克先生。"他这番话使我沉浸在十全十美的幸福之中。

Part Text B Summer ReadingⅢ

As a summer job the author used to cut Mr. Ballou's lawn. The only problem was that Mr. Ballou never seemed to have any money to pay for it. But what he did have to give was something that turned out to be far more valuable.

夏天打工时,作者常常替巴卢先生修剪草坪。惟一的问题是,巴卢先生似乎从来没钱支付工钱。然而,他实际上所给予的却远比工钱珍贵。

Summer Reading

Michael Dorris

1When I was fourteen, I earned money in the summer by cutting lawns, and within a few weeks I had built up a body of customers. I got to know people by the flowers they planted that I had to remember not to cut down, by the things they lost in the grass or stuck in the ground on purpose. I reached the point with most of them when I knew in advance what complaint was about to be spoken, which particular request was most important. (1) And I learned something about the measure of my n eighbors by their preferred method of payment: by the job, by the month ─ or not at all.

夏日阅读

迈克尔·多里斯十四岁那年,我在暑假里替人修剪草坪挣些钱,不出几个星期,我就有了不少客户。客户们种植的花卉我得记住不能剪去,他们会将东西遗落在草地上或故意插在地里,通过这些我逐渐认识了他们。我对大多数客户了解至

深,事先就能知道他们会抱怨些什么,哪些特别的要求不能掉以轻心。(1)而且,我从邻居偏爱的付款方式中了解到了一点他们的情况:有的按干的活儿给钱,有的按月支付─ 或者有的压根儿不付钱。

2Mr. Ballou fell into the last category, and he always had a reason why. On one day he had no change for a fifty, on another he was flat out of checks, on another, he was simply out when I knocked on his door. Still, except for the money part, he was a nice enough old guy, always waving or tipping his hat when he'd see me from a distance. I figured him for a thin retirement check, maybe a work-related injury that kept him from doing his own yard work. Sure,

I kept track of the total, but I didn't worry about the amount too much. (2) Grass was grass,

and the little that Mr. Ballou's property comprised didn't take long to trim.

巴卢先生属于最后一类,而且他总有理由。有一天他兑不开一张五十元的钞票,又有一天他支票用完了,还有一天我上门时他干脆就溜出去了。撇开钱这档子事,他倒也还是个挺不错的老头,每次看见我,老远就挥手或脱帽

致意。我猜他退休金不多,可能出过工伤,整不了自己的园子。没错,我全都记着账,可我对这点钱并没太在意。(2)也就是剪剪草,何况巴卢先生住宅外面的那一点草坪修剪起来花不了多少时间。

3Then, one late afternoon in mid-July, the hottest time of the year, I was walking by his house and he opened the door, motioned me to come inside. The hall was cool, shaded, and it took my eyes a minute to adjust to the dim light.

到了一年中最热的七月中旬,一天傍晚前,我走过他家,他开了门,示意我进去。门厅里凉凉的,帘子遮去了阳光,过了一会儿我的眼睛才适应室内的暗淡光线。

4"I owe you," Mr. Ballou began, "but…"

"我欠你工钱,"巴卢先生开口道,"不过……"

5I thought I'd save him the trouble of thinking up a new excuse. "No problem. Don't worry about it."

我想省得他费神找新的借口了,就说: "没事。别放在心上。"

6"The bank made a mistake in my account," he continued, ignoring my words. "It will be cleared up in a day or two. But in the meantime I thought perhaps you could choose one or two volumes for

a down payment."

"银行把我的账弄错了,"他没理我的碴儿,接着说,"一两天里就会改过来。在这当儿,我想你不妨挑一两本书作为我的首付款。"

7He gestured toward the walls and I saw that books were stacked everywhere. It was like a library, except with no order to the arrangement.

他朝墙那边指了指,我这才发现到处都堆着书。就跟图书馆一样,只不过没有分门别类罢了。

8"Take your time," Mr. Ballou encouraged. "Read, borrow, keep. Find something you like. What do you read"

"别着急,"巴卢先生鼓动说,"读也好,借也好,留着也行。找你喜欢的。你平常都爱读什么书啊"

9"I don't know." And I didn't. I generally read what was in front of me, what I could get from the paperback stack at the drugstore, what I found at the library, magazines, the back of cereal boxes, comics. The idea of consciously seeking out a special title was new to me, but,

I realized, not without appeal─ so I started to look through the piles of books.

"我不知道。"我的确不知道。我通常是弄到什么就读什么,从药房里买到的平装书,图书馆里借得到的书、杂志,到麦片包装盒背面的说明,还有连环漫画,什么都看。有意识地找出一本特别的书来读对我是件新鲜事,不过

我觉得这主意挺不错── 于是我开始在书堆中翻找起来。

10"You actually read all of these"

"这么多书你都读过啊"

11"This isn't much," Mr. Ballou said. "This is nothing, just what I've kept, the ones worth looking at a second time."

"这不算多,"巴卢先生说,"这根本不算多,只不过是我自己的藏书,都是值得再读一遍的。"

12"Pick for me, then."

"那就替我找一本吧。"

13He raised his eyebrows, cocked his head, and regarded me as though measuring me for a suit.

After a moment, he nodded, searched through a stack, and handed me a dark red hardbound book, fairly thick.

他眉一抬,头一侧,望着我,就像是在给我量体裁衣似的。过了片刻,他略一点头,便在一堆书中搜寻,然后递给我一本暗红色封面的精装本,挺厚的。

14"The Last of the Just," I read. "By Andre Schwarz-Bart. What's it about"

"《最后的正义》,"我念道,"安德烈·施瓦兹巴特着。是讲什么的"

15"You tell me," he said. "Next week."

"你来告诉我,"他说,"下个星期。"

16I started after supper, sitting outdoors on an uncomfortable kitchen chair. (3) Within a few pages, the yard, the summer, disappeared, and I was plunged into the aching tragedy of the Holocaust, the extraordinary clash of good, represented by one decent man, and evil.

Translated from French, the language was elegant, simple, impossible to resist. When the evening light finally failed I moved inside, read all through the night.

晚饭后我坐在室外一张不舒服的餐椅里打开了书。(3)读了几页,院子就消失了,夏夜也消失了;我一下子就

进入了二战期间纳粹对犹太人的大屠杀这一令人悲痛的惨剧中,进入了以一个正派人物为代表的善与恶之间非同寻

常的冲突中。书译自法文,译文优美朴素,令人不忍释手。天色终于暗了下来,我回到室内,读了一个通宵。

17To this day, thirty years later, I vividly remember the experience. It was my first voluntary encounter with world literature, and I was stunned by the concentrated power a novel could contain.

I lacked the vocabulary, however, to translate my feelings into words, so the next week, when Mr. Ballou asked, "Well" I only replied, "It was good."

时至三十年后的今天,我仍清晰地记得当时的经历。那是我初次有心地接触世界文学,我被一部小说所能包含的集聚的力量深深震撼。但我缺乏足够的词汇表达我的情感,因此,第二个星期,当巴卢先生问我"怎么样"时,我

只回答说:"书真好。"

18"Keep it, then," he said. "Shall I suggest another"

"那就留着吧,"他说,"要不要我再介绍一本"

19I nodded, and was presented with the paperback edition of Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa.

我点点头,拿到了一本平装本的玛格丽特·米德的《萨摩亚人的成年》。

20To make two long stories short, Mr. Ballou never paid me a cent for cutting his grass that year or the next, but for fifteen years I taught anthropology at Dartmouth College. (4) Summer reading was not the innocent entertainment I had assumed it to be, not a light-hearted, instantly forgettable escape in a hammock (though I have since enjoyed many of those, too). A book, if it arrives before you at the right moment, in the proper season, at an interval in the daily business of things, will change the course of all that follows.

长话短说,无论当年还是次年,巴卢先生分文未付我替他割草的工钱,但我在达特默思大学教了十五年的人类学。(4) 盛夏阅读不是我原先认为的仅仅借以消磨时光的娱乐,不是躺在吊床上无忧无虑、打开书本就什么都忘掉

的一种消遣(虽然自从那个夏天以来我曾多次以这种方式自娱自乐)。一本书,如果在恰当的时候,恰当的季节,在

日常事务的间歇中出现在你的面前,就会改变你此后的人生道路。

Unit 2 Friendship

Part Text A A all The Cabbie Had Was A Letter Ⅱ

How do you feel when old friends are far away Do you make an effort to keep in touch Sometimes it is easy to put off writing a letter, thinking that there will be plenty of time tomorrow. But then sometimes, as this story shows, we leave it too late. Perhaps reading it will make you want to reach for your pen.

老朋友天各一方,你心有何感你是否努力保持联系有时候写信的事很容易会一拖再拖,总以为明天有的是时间。然而,正如这则故事所表明的,有时我们拖得太晚了。也许读一读这个故事会让你提起笔来。

All the Cabbie Had Was a Letter

Foster Furcolo

1He must have been completely lost in something he was reading because I had to tap on the windshield to get his attention.

出租车司机拥有的就剩一封信

福斯特·弗克洛他准是完全沉浸在所读的东西里了,因为我不得不敲挡风玻璃来引起他的注意。

2"Is your cab available" I asked when he finally looked up at me. He nodded, then said apologetically as I settled into the back seat, "I'm sorry, but I was reading a letter." He sounded as if he had a cold or something.

他总算抬头看我了。“你出车吗”我问道。他点点头,当我坐进后座时,他抱歉地说:“对不起,我在读一封信。” 听上去他像是得

3"I'm in no hurry," I told him. "Go ahead and finish your letter."

“我不着急,”我对他说,“你接着把信读完吧。”

4He shook his head. "I've read it several times already. I guess I almost know it by heart."

他摇了摇头。“我已经读了好几遍了。我想我都能背出来了。”

5"Letters from home always mean a lot," I said. "At least they do with me because I'm on the road so much." Then, estimating that he was 60 or 70 years old, I guessed: "From a child or maybe a grandchild"

“家书抵万金啊,”我说。“至少对我来说是这样,因为我老是在外旅行。”我估量他有六七十岁了,便猜测说:“是孩子还是孙子写来的”

6"This isn't family," he replied. "Although," he went on, "come to think of it, it might just as well have been family. Old Ed was my oldest friend. In fact, we used to call each other 'Old Friend' ─ when we'd meet, that is. I'm not much of a hand at writing."

“不是家里人,”他回答说。“不过,”他接着说,“想起来,也可以算是一家人了。埃德老伙计是我最老的朋友了。实际上,过去我俩总是以‘老朋友’相称的——就是说,当我俩相见时。我这人就是不大会写东西。”

7"I don't think any of us keep up our correspondence too well," I said. "I know I don't. But I take it he's someone you've known quite a while"

“我看大家写信都不那么勤快,”我说,“我自己笔头就很懒。我看,你认识他挺久了吧”

8"All my life, practically. We were kids together, so we go way back."

“差不多认识了一辈子了。我俩小时候就一起玩,所以我俩的友谊确实很长了。”

9"Went to school together"

“一起上的学”

10"All the way through high school. We were in the same class, in fact, through both grade and high school."

“都一起上到高中呢。事实上,我俩从小学到高中都在一个班里。”

11"There are not too many people who've had such a long friendship," I said.

“保持这么长久友谊的人可真不多见啊,”我说。

12"Actually," the driver went on, "I hadn't seen him more than once or twice a year over the past

25 or 30 years because I moved away from the old neighborhood and you kind of lose touch even

though you never forget. He was a great guy."

“其实呢,”司机接着说,“近25到30年来,我跟他一年只见一两次面,因为我从原来住的老街坊搬了出来,联系自然就少了,虽说你一直放在心上。他在的时候可真是个大好人。”

13"You said 'was'. Does that mean ─"

“你刚才说他‘在的时候’。你是说——”

14He nodded. "Died a couple of weeks ago."

他点了点头。“前两个星期过世啦。”

15"I'm sorry," I said. "It's no fun to lose any friend ─ and losing a real old one is even tougher."

“真遗憾,”我说,“失去朋友真不是个滋味,失去个真正的老朋友更让人受不了。”

16He didn't reply to that, and we rode on in silence for a few minutes. But I realized that Old Ed was still on his mind when he spoke again, almost more to himself than to me: "I should have kept in touch. Yes," he repeated, "I should have kept in touch."

他开着车,没有接话儿。我们沉默了几分钟。可我知道他还在想着老埃德。他又开口时,与其说是跟我说话,还不如说是自言自语:“我真该一直保持联系。真的,”他重复道,“我真该一直保持联系。”

17"well," I agreed, "We should all keep in touch with old friends more than we do. But things come up and we just don't seem to find the time."

“是啊,”我表示赞同,“我们都该与老朋友保持更多的联系。不过总是有事情冒出来,好像就是抽不出空来。”

18He shrugged. "We used to find the time," he said. "That's even mentioned in the letter." He handed it over to me. "Take a look."

他耸了耸肩。“我们过去总能抽出空来,”他说。“信里还提到呢。”他把信递给我,“你看看吧。”

19"Thanks," I said, "but I don't want to read your mail. That's pretty personal."

“谢谢你,”我说,“不过我不想读你的信。这纯属私事。”

20The driver shrugged. "Old Ed's dead. There's nothing personal now. Go ahead," he urged me.

司机耸一耸肩。“老埃德人都死了。没什么私事不私事了。念吧,”他催促说。

21The letter was written in pencil. It began with the greeting "Old Friend,"and the first sentence reminded me of myself. I've been meaning to write for some time, but I've always postponed it.

It then went on to say that he often thought about the good times they had had together when they both lived in the same neighborhood. It had references to things that probably meant something to the driver, such as the time Tim Shea broke the window, the Halloween that we tied Old Mr. Parker's gate, and when Mrs. Culver used to keep us after school.

信是用铅笔写的。称呼写着“老朋友”,而开头第一句话让我想到自己。“早就想写信了,可就是一拖再拖。” 信里接着写道,他常常回想从前两人住在一个街坊时的快乐时光。信里提到些事,可能对司机很重要,比如“那次蒂姆·谢打破窗子,那年万圣节前夕,我们把老帕克先生的大门拴了起来,还有卡尔弗太太老是在放学后把咱俩留下训斥的那阵子”。

22"You must have spent a lot of time together," I said to him.

“你们俩准是在一起度过了不少时光,”我对他说。

23"Like it says there," he answered, "about all we had to spend in those days was time." He shook his head: "Time."

“就跟信里写的那样,”他回答说,“我俩在那个时候能花的只有时间。”他摇头叹道:“时间啊。”

24I thought the next paragraph of the letter was a little sad: I began the letter with "Old Friend" because that's what we've become over the years ─ old friends. And there aren't many of us left.

信里接下来的那段我觉得有点凄凉:“信的开头我写着‘老朋友’,因为这么多年来,我们这对老朋友渐渐都老了。我们这些人当中留下的也不多了。”

25"You know," I said to him, "When it says here that there aren't many of us left, that's absolutely right. Every time I go to a class reunion, for example, there are fewer and fewer still around."

“你要知道,”我对他说,“信里说我们这些人当中留下的不多了,说得一点不错。比如说,每次我去参加老同学聚会,来的人总是越来越少。”

26"Time goes by," the driver said.

“时间不饶人啊,”司机说。

27"Did you two work at the same place" I asked him.

“你们俩以前在一起工作吗”我问他。

28"No, but we hung out on the same corner when we were single. And then, when we were married, we used to go to each other's house every now and then. But for the last 20 or 30 years it's been mostly just Christmas cards. Of course there'd be always a note we'd ea ch add to the cards ─ usually some news about our families, you know, what the kids were doing, who moved where, a new grandchild, things like that ─ but never a real letter or anything like that."

“不,不过没成家时我俩总在一起闲荡。后来,两人都成了家,就不时相互串门。可最近这二三十年来,主要就是寄寄圣诞卡了。当然,我俩都总在卡上写几句——通常是关于各自家里的情况,不是吗,孩子们在干些什么,谁搬到哪儿,添了个小孙子,都是这类事——可一直都没正儿八经地写过信什么的。”

29"This is a good part here," I said. "Where it says Your friendship over the years has meant an awful lot to me, more than I can say because I'm not good at saying things like that."I found myself nodding in agreement. "That must have made you feel good, didn't it" “这一处写得好,”我说,“这里写道:‘你多年的友谊对我非常重要,远比我能说出来的重要得多,因为我不擅长说这样的话。’”我颔首称是。“这话准让你听着开心,是吧”

30The driver said something that I couldn't understand because he seemed to be all choked up, so I continued: "I know I'd like to receive a letter like that from my oldest friend."

司机说了句什么,可我没听明白,因为他似乎哽噎得厉害。于是我接着说:“我也真想收到这样一封老朋友的来信。”

31We were getting close to our destination so I skipped to the last paragraph. So I thought you'd like to know that I was thinking of you. And it was signed, Your Old Friend, Tom.

我们快到目的地了,于是我跳到最后一段。“因此我想你一定想知道我惦记着你。”信末署名:“老朋友汤姆”。

32I handed back the letter as we stopped at my hotel. "Enjoyed talking with you,"I said as I took my suitcase out of the cab. Tom The letter was signed Tom

我们在我的旅店前停下,我把信递了回去。“很高兴能和你聊聊,”我将衣箱从车上提下时说。汤姆信的署名是汤姆

33"I thought your friend's name was Ed," I said. "Why did he sign it Tom"

“我记得你朋友叫埃德,”我说,“为什么他署名汤姆呢”

34"The letter was not from Ed to me," he explained. "I'm Tom. It's a letter I wrote to him before

I knew he'd died. So I never mailed it."

“这封信不是汤姆写给我的,”他解释说,“我是汤姆。这是我在得知他去世前写给他的信。所以我一直没寄出。”

35He looked sort of sorrowful, or as if he were trying to see something in the distance. "I guess

I should have written it sooner."

他神情有点悲伤,似乎想看清远处什么东西。“我想我真该早些写这封信。”

36When I got to my hotel room I didn't unpack right away. First I had to write a letter ─ and mail it.

我进了旅馆房间之后,没有马上打开箱包。首先我得写封信——而且要寄出去。

Part Text B Never Let A friend Down Ⅲ

If I don't make it, my friend will die out there, Bill McIntosh, the old hunter, told himself over and over.

如果我不能挺住的话,我的朋友就会死在那里,老猎手比尔·麦金托什一次又一次地告诫自己。

Never Let a Friend Down

Jim Hutchison 1"Coming to the football match this afternoon" Bill McIntosh asked 59-year-old Royce Wedding as they drank beer at the Eureka Hotel in the Australian town of Rainbow. Royce shook his head. "I promised Mom I'd burn off the weeds on one of our fields."

决不抛弃朋友

吉姆·赫奇森“下午去看足球赛吗”比尔·麦金托什问59岁的罗伊斯·韦丁。他们两人正在澳大利亚的虹镇尤里卡饭店喝啤酒。罗伊斯摇摇头。“我答应我妈给我家的一块地烧荒。”

2Bill, who was thin but strong, looking far less than his 79 years, peered outside at the heat. A light breeze was blowing from the north, making conditions perfect for the burn. But Bill felt uneasy about Royce doing the job alone. The farmer had a bad leg and walked with great difficulty.

比尔瘦削而结实,79岁,但看上去远没有那么老。他望着外面的炎热空气。一阵轻风自北向南吹,这条件最适宜烧荒了。不过比尔对罗伊斯独自干这活不放心。这个农夫有条腿不好,行走很费劲。

3The pair had been best of friends for 30 years, ever since the days when they traveled together from farm to farm in search of work. Now, living alone 12 miles east of town, Bill scraped a living hunting foxes and rabbits. Once a fortnight he went to town to buy supplies and catch up with Royce, who helped run the Wedding family's farm. "I'll give you a hand," Bill said.

两人曾一起从一个农场走到另一个农场寻些活儿干,迄今已是30年的好朋友了。如今比尔独自一人住在镇

东 12英里处,靠打狐狸和野兔勉强过活。他两个星期一次前来小镇购物,会会帮着经管自家的农场的罗伊斯。“我帮你一把,”比尔说。

4The pair set off in Royce's car. Soon they were bumping over a sandy track to the weed-choked 120-acre field. "Fire's the only way to get rid of this stuff," said Bill as they tied an old tire to the tow bar with a 50-foot chain. Soaking the tire with gasoline, Bill put a match to it and jumped in the car.

两人坐着罗伊斯的车动身了。没多一会儿他们就颠簸在一条沙土路上,朝一块面积120公顷、杂草丛生的田地开去。“火是除去这玩意儿的惟一办法,”比尔说。他们用根50英尺长的链条把一个旧轮胎绑在牵引杆上。比尔在轮胎上浇透汽油,划根火柴一点,便跳进车里。

5Driving slowly from the southern edge of the field, they worked their way upwind, leaving a line of burning weeds in their wake. Half way up the field, and without warning, the car pitched violently forward, plowing into a hidden bank of sand.

两人从农田的南边缓缓开车逆风而行,所过之处留下一条燃着的草带。开到地当中,车猛地朝前一颠,没等察觉,就陷进了一个被草遮着的沙堆。

6The breeze suddenly swung around to their backs and began to gather strength. Fanned to white heat, the fire line suddenly burst into a wall of flame, heading directly toward them. "Let's get out of here!" Royce said.

微风突然转向,朝两人身后吹来,而且越吹越强。火仗风势,烧得炽热,一条火带顿时就变成一道火墙,直扑两人而来。“咱们快离开这儿!”罗伊斯说道。

7Desperately he tried to back the car out of the sand bank. But the wheels only spun deeper in the soft sand.

他拼命想把车倒出沙堆。可车轮在软沙里越转陷得越深。

8Suddenly the fire was on them. Bill pushed open his door only to find himself flung through the air as, with a roar, the gasoline tank exploded and the car leapt three feet off the ground.

When it crashed back down Royce found himself pinned against the steering wheel, unable to move.

The car's seats and roof were now on fire.

火顿时就扑到两人身上。比尔推开车门,却听得一声巨响,油箱爆炸了,车子飞离地面三英尺,他自己则被抛到空中。车子摔回地面后,罗伊斯发现自己被方向盘卡住,动弹不得。这时,车座和车顶也都烧着了。

9Bill lay where he fell, all the breath knocked out of him. The front of his shirt, shorts, bare arms and legs were soaked in burning gasoline. Then the sight of the car in flames brought him upright with a start. "Royce!" he cried, struggling to his feet and heading for the car.

比尔躺在跌落的地方,摔得气都喘不过来。他的衬衣前襟、短裤、光裸的手臂和双腿都浸在燃烧着的汽油里。接着汽车着火了,见此情景他惊坐起来。“罗伊斯!”他边喊边挣扎着站起身来,向汽车冲去。

10Pulling open the door, he seized Royce's arms through the smoke. "I'm stuck," Royce said. "Get yourself away!"

他拉开车门,在烟雾中抓住罗伊斯的手臂。“我给卡住了,”罗伊斯说,“你快走!”

11(1) The fire bit at Bill's arms, face and legs, but he tightened his grip on Royce. "I'm not leaving you here," he said.

(1)火舌舔着比尔的双臂、脸和双腿,但他紧紧地抓住罗伊斯不放。“我不会把你丢弃在这儿的,”他说道。

12Now Bill dug his heels into the sand and pulled as hard as he could. Suddenly he fell backward.

Royce was free and out of the car. As soon as he had dragged him away he patted out the flames on Royce's body and on his own legs and arms with his bare hands.

比尔两个脚跟扎在沙堆里,拼命用力拉。突然他仰面倒下,罗伊斯被拉出了汽车。他一把将罗伊斯拉开,便赶紧赤手去扑灭罗伊斯身上以及自己腿上、手臂上的火。

13Royce saw a second explosion rock the car, as it was eaten up by flames. I'd be ashes now if Bill hadn't gotten me out, he thought. Looking down, Royce was shocked by the extent of his injuries. His stomach and left hip were covered in deep burns. Worse still, his fingers were burned completely out of shape.

罗伊斯看着又一次爆炸把汽车震得直晃,车一下子被火苗吞噬。“要不是比尔把我拉出来,我这会儿就烧成灰了,” 他暗想。他低头一看,身上伤势之严重令他大为惊讶。他腹部及左臀严重烧伤。更糟糕的是,手指被烧得完全变了形。

14Lying on his back, Bill was in equally bad shape. Pieces of blackened flesh and skin hung from his forearms, hands and legs.

比尔仰天躺在地上,也一样被烧得不成样子。前臂以及手和腿上,一块块烧得焦黑的皮肉挂了下来。

15Bill looked across at his friend. Reading the despair clouding Royce's face, Bill said, "I'll get help. You hang on." Royce nodded, but as he watched Bill set off slowly across the blackened field, he wondered how his friend was going to walk almost two miles and get over three fences.

比尔朝自己的朋友望去,看出罗伊斯满脸绝望,便说:“我去叫人。你顶住。”罗伊斯点了点头,可当他看着比尔穿过焦黑的田地缓缓走开时,真不知道这位朋友怎么去走那几乎整整两英里的路,还要跨越三道栅栏。

16(2) A lifetime spent around the tough people who make their home in the Australian bush had permanently fixed into Bill's soul two principles: never give up no matter how bad the odds and never let a friend down. Now, with every step sending pain piercing through every part of his body, he drew on those twin pillars of character.(3) If I don't make it, Royce will die out there, he told himself over and over.

(2) 一辈子与居住在澳大利亚灌木地带的那些刚强的硬汉一起生活的人生经历,将两条准则永久地铭刻在比尔心头:无论多么艰难,决不泄气,决不抛弃朋友。此时此刻,他每迈出一步,浑身上下便针扎似地疼,他完全是靠

这两种品质支撑着。(3) 如果我不能挺住的话,罗伊斯就会死在那里,比尔一次又一次地告诫自己。

17"What's the matter with that dog" said Vicky Wedding, Royce's mom, peering out her window.

Startled by a noise behind her, she turned to see Bill leaning against the door.

“那条狗怎么啦”罗伊斯的母亲维基·韦丁说着朝窗外望去。听到身后响动,她吓了一跳,转身一看,比尔正倚靠在门上。

18"Dear God, what happened" she exclaimed, grabbing Bill as he slid down the doorframe.

“天哪,出了什么事”她惊问道,赶紧扶住正沿着门框瘫坐下去的比尔。

19"We got caught in the fire," he whispered, barely able to speak. "Get help." Vicky sat Bill down, covered him in wet towels to ease the pain of his burns, and then picked up the phone.

“我们遭火烧了,”他低声道,几乎说不出话来。“快去叫人。”维基扶比尔坐下,用湿毛巾敷在他身上以减轻烧伤的疼痛,随后便拿起了电话。

20Throughout the bumpy, hour-and-a-half ride to the hospital in Horsham, neither of the two injured men spoke of their pain. "We should've gone to the football match," Royce said, trying to keep their spirits up. Bill grinned weakly.

他们坐上汽车前往霍舍姆的医院,在长达一个半小时的颠簸的路途中,两位伤者只字未提自己的伤痛。“咱们真该去看足球赛,”罗伊斯开口说道,想让自己和朋友振作一下精神。比尔也轻轻一笑。

21Not long after Bill found himself at Government House being presented with the Bravery Medal for his courageous rescue. (4) But the real highlight for Bill came six months after the fire, when Royce, just out of hospital, walked into the Eureka Hotel and bought him a beer.

不久,比尔在镇公所被授予勇敢奖章,以表彰其勇救他人的壮举。(4) 但真正最令比尔激动的时刻是火灾发生六个月之后,刚刚出院的罗伊斯走进尤里卡饭店,请他喝啤酒。

22"We made it," said Royce as they raised their glasses. "Here's to the best friend a man could have."

“咱们赢了,”两人举杯时,罗伊斯说道,“为生死之交干杯。”

Unit 3 Understanding Science

Part Text A A Public Attitudes Toward Science Ⅱ

Professor Hawking thinks it important to keep everybody in touch with what science is about. In this article he explains why.

霍金教授认为使每个人都了解科学是干什么的非常重要。在这篇文章中,他对其中的缘由作了解释。

Public Attitudes Toward Science

Stephen Hawking 1Whether we like it or not, the world we live in has changed a great deal in the last hundred years, and it is likely to change even more in the next hundred. Some people would like to stop these changes and go back to what they see as a purer and simpler age. But as history shows, the past was not that wonderful. It was not so bad for a privileged minority, though even they had to do without modern medicine, and childbirth was highly risky for women. But for the vast majority of the population, life was nasty, brutish, and short.

公众科学观

斯蒂芬·霍金无论我们是否愿意,我们生活的世界在过去一百年间已经变化了许多,而且在未来的一百年里可能变化更多。有人想中止这种种变化,回到那个他们认为更纯洁更朴素的时代。但正如历史所表明的,过去并非那么美妙。过去对享有特权的少数人不算太糟,但即便他们也无从享受现代医疗,而生育对妇女来说风险极大。对占人口大多数的民众而言,生活是艰难、残忍而又短暂的。

2Anyway, even if one wanted to, one couldn't put the clock back to an earlier age. Knowledge and techniques can't just be forgotten. Nor can one prevent further advances in the future. Even if all government money for research were cut off (and the present government is doing its best), the force of competition would still bring about advances in technology. Moreover, one cannot stop inquiring minds from thinking about basic science, whether or not they are paid for it. The only way to prevent further developments would be a global state that suppressed anything new, and human initiative and inventiveness are such that even this wouldn't succeed. All it would do is slow down the rate of change.

不管怎样,即使有人想这么做,他也无法将时钟拨回到早先的时代。知识与技术不可能说忘就忘了。也没有人能阻止未来的进一步发展。即使所有用于研究的政府资金都被取消(现政府最擅此事),竞争的力量仍将继续带来技术的发展。更何况,没有人能阻止探究求索之士去思索基础科学,无论他们是否会为此得到酬劳。惟一能阻止进一步发展的办法或许是一个压制任何新事物的全球政府,但人类的进取心与创造力如此旺盛,即便这个政府也不会成功。它所能做到的只是延缓变化的速度。

3If we accept that we cannot prevent science and technology from changing our world, we can at least try to ensure that the changes they make are in the right directions. In a democratic society, this means that the public needs to have a basic understanding of science, so that it can make informed decisions and not leave them in the hands of experts. At the moment, the public is in two minds about science. It has come to expect the steady increase in the standard of living that new developments in science and technology have brought to continue, but it also distrusts science because it doesn't understand it. This distrust is evident in the cartoon figure of the mad scientist working in his laboratory to produce a Frankenstein. It is also an important element behind support for the Green parties. But the public also has a great interest in science,

particularly astronomy, as is shown by the large audiences for television series such as The Sky at Night and for science fiction.

如果我们承认,我们无法阻止科学技术改变我们的世界,我们至少可以努力确保科技带来的变化方向正确。在一个民主社会里,这意味着公众需要对科学有一个基本的了解,从而可以作出明达的决定,而不是把决定留给专家

去作。目前,公众对科学存有矛盾之心。公众期望科技新发展带来的生活水准的稳定提高能继续,但又怀疑科学,

因为他们不懂科学。那个在实验室里设法制造弗兰肯斯泰因的疯狂的科学家的卡通人物清楚地体现了公众的这种怀疑。这也是人们之所以支持各种绿色组织的一个重要因素。但公众同时也对科学深感兴趣,尤其是对天文学,诸如《夜空》之类的电视连续剧观众不少以及科幻小说读者甚多就是明证。

4What can be done to harness this interest and give the public the scientific background it needs to make informed decisions on subjects like acid rain, the greenhouse effect, nuclear weapons, and genetic engineering Clearly, the basis must lie in what is taught in schools. But in schools science

is often presented in a dry and uninteresting manner. Children learn it by rote to pass examinations, and they don't see its relevance to the world around them. Moreover, science is often taught in terms of equations. Although equations are a brief and accurate way of describing mathematical ideas, they frighten most people. When I wrote a popular book recently, I was advised that each equation I included would halve the sales. I included one equation, Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2. Maybe I would have sold twice as many copies without it.

怎么样才能利用这种兴趣,向公众提供所需要的科学知识,以便其在酸雨、温室效应、核武器以及基因工程等问题上作出明达的决定呢显然,必须把基础建立在学校课程上。但在学校里,科学往往被教得枯燥乏味。孩子们死

记硬背应付考试,他们看不出科学与他们的周围世界的联系。更有甚者,科学常常是用公式来教的。虽然公式是阐

述数学概念的一种简单而精确的方式,它们却使大多数人望而生畏。前不久我写了一本通俗读物,当时有人告诫我说,我每使用一个公式就会使销量减半。我只使用了一个公式,即爱因斯坦那个着名的公式,E=mc2。如果不用这个

公式的话,也许我能多卖出一倍的书。

5Scientists and engineers tend to express their ideas in the form of equations because they need to know the precise values of quantities. But for the rest of us, a qualitative grasp of scientific concepts is sufficient, and this can be conveyed by words and diagrams, without the use of equations.

科学家和工程师倾向于用公式阐述观点,因为他们需要知道量的精确值。但对我们其余的人来说,对科学概念有个质的认识就已足够,这可以用文字和图表来表述,大可不必使用公式。

6The science people learn in school can provide the basic framework. But the rate of scientific progress is now so rapid that there are always new developments that have occurred since one was at school or university. I never learned about molecular biology or transistors at school, but genetic engineering and computers are two of the developments most likely to change the way we live in the future. Popular books and magazine articles about science can help to put across new developments, but even the most successful popular book is read by only a small proportion of the population. Only television can reach a truly mass audience. There are some very good science programmes on TV, but others present scientific wonders simply as magic, without explaining them or showing how they fit into the framework of scientific ideas. Producers of television science programmes should realize that they have a responsibility to educate the public, not just entertain it.

人们在学校学到的科学知识可以提供一个基本的框架。但如今科学进步的速度如此之快,一个人离开学校或大学后新的发展层出不穷。我在学校从未学过分子生物学或晶体管,但基因工程和计算机是极有可能改变我们未来生活的两项发展。有关科学的通俗读物和杂志文章能帮助人们了解新发展,但即使是最畅销的科普读物也只有一小部分人阅读。只有电视能赢得真正广大的观众。电视上有一些相当优秀的科学节目,但其他的节目把科学奇迹简单地作为魔术播出,既不加以说明,也不展现它们与科学观念的整体框架的关系。电视科学节目的制片人应该认识到,他们负有教育民众的重任,而不仅仅是为他们提供娱乐。

7The world today is filled with dangers, hence the sick joke that the reason we have not been contacted by an alien civilization is that civilizations tend to destroy themselves when they reach our stage. But I have sufficient faith in the good sense of the public to believe that we might prove this wrong.

当今世界充满危险,因此就有了那个令人毛骨悚然的玩笑,说我们尚未受到外星文明造访的原因在于:但凡文明发展到我们目前的程度,它们往往就自我毁灭了。然而我对公众的明智充满信心,因而相信,我们将证明这一说法是错误的。

Part Text B How To Make Sense Out of ScienceⅢ

When scientific discoveries hit the news they are rarely as simple as the headlines suggest. They usually do not mention the years of work that lie behind the discoveries. The reports also do little to help us realize that science seldom provides answers that are final and beyond challenge.

科学发现成为新闻时,很少如新闻标题所显示的那么简单。新闻标题通常只字不提科学发现背后的长年努力。新闻报道也很少帮助我们认识,科学绝少提供最终的、经得住挑战的答案。

How To Make Sense Out Of Science

David H. Levy 1New Drugs Kill Cancer

如何理解科学

大卫·H·利维新药灭癌

2Devastation by El Ni?o ─ a Warning

厄尔·尼诺现象将带来毁灭── 一则警告

36:30 . October 26, 2028: Could This Be the Deadline for the Apocalypse

2028年10月26日下午6:30:世界末日的最后期限

4When these headlines appeared this year, their stories became the subjects of conversations around the world ─ talks spiced with optimism and confusion. Imagine the hopes raised in the

millions battling cancer. Did the news mean these people never had to worry about cancer again Or that we all had to worry about a catastrophe from outer space or, more immediately, from El Ni?o

这些标题于今年见诸报端时,这类新闻便成为全世界的话题——既掺有乐观又带来混乱的话题。想象一下这些新闻为成千上万与癌症抗争的人们所带来的希望。这些新闻是否意味着这些人再也不用为癌症担忧呢还是说我们所有的人都得为来自外层空间的大祸,或者更近一点,为厄尔·尼诺现象造成的灾难而忧心忡忡呢。

5Unfortunately, science doesn't work that way. It rarely arrives at final answers. People battling cancer or victims of El Ni?o may find this frustrating, but the truth is that Nature does not yield her secrets easily. Science is done step by step. First an idea is formed. Then this is tested by an experiment. The outcome, one hopes, results in an increase in knowledge.

不幸的是,科学并非这般运作。科学极少提供最终的答案。与癌症搏斗的人们或厄尔·尼诺现象的受害者也许会觉得这太令人沮丧,但事实是,大自然并不轻易袒露其奥秘。科学研究是一步一步进行的,首先要有一个构想,然后用实验检验这个构想,人们希望其结果能成为知识的一种积累。

6Science is not a set of unquestionable results but a way of understanding the world around us.

Its real work is slow. (1) The scientific method, as many of us learned in school, is a gradual process that begins with a purpose or a problem or question to be answered. It includes a list of materials, a procedure to follow, a set of observations to make and, finally, conclusions to reach. In medicine, when a new drug is proposed that might cure or control a disease, it is first tested on a large random group of people, and their reactions are then compared with those of another random group not given the drug. All reactions in both groups are carefully recorded and compared, and the drug is evaluated. All of this takes time ─ and patience.

科学并非一组无可置疑的结果,而是认识我们周围世界的一种方法。其实际进程是缓慢的。(1) 正如我们很多人在学校里所学的那样,科学方法是一个渐进的过程,这个过程始于某个目的,或某个有待解决或回答的问题。这包括一组材料,一套必须遵循的操作步骤,一系列有待进行的观察,最后是有待得出的结论。医学上,有人提出一种新药可能医治或控制某种疾病时,先是在随意挑选的大量人群中进行试验,然后将这部分人群的用药反应与另一组随意挑选的未用此药的人群的情况进行比较。两组人群的种种反应被一一记录,仔细比较,从而对新药的疗效作出鉴定。所有这些过程需要时间——以及耐心。

7It's the result of course, that makes the best news ─ not the years of quiet work that characterize the bulk of scientific inquiry. After an experiment is concluded or an observation is made, the result continues to be examined critically. When it is submitted for publication, it goes to a group of the scientist's colleagues, who review the work. If the work is important enough, just before the report is published in a professional journal or read at a conference,

a press release is issued and an announcement is made to the world.

成为新闻热点的当然是结果,而非长年默默无闻的努力,而长年默默无闻的努力正是绝大多数科学探索的特点。在实验有了结论,或观察结束之后,其结果仍将受到严格的检测。结果送交发表时,会由一组科学家的同行审阅。如果成果相当重要,那在专业杂志上发表或会议上宣读该实验报告之前,将会举行新闻发布会,向世人宣布。

8The world may think that the announcement signifies the end of the process, but it doesn't. A publication is really a challenge: "Here is my result. Prove me wrong!" (2) Other researchers

will try to repeat the experiment, and the more often it works, the better the chances that the result is sound. Einstein was right when he said: "No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can at any time prove me wrong."

世人也许会认为宣布结果标志整个过程的结束,其实不然。发表成果实际上是种挑战:“本人所作结论在此。请证其谬!”(2) 别的研究人员会试图重复这一实验,实验成功的次数越多,其结果就越有可能是可靠的。爱因斯坦说得对:“再多的实验也永远不能证明我正确,而一项实验随时就能证明我错误。”

9In August 1996, NASA announced the discovery in Antarctica of a meteorite from Mars that might contain evidence of ancient life on another world. (3)As President Clinton said that day, the possibility that life existed on Mars billions of years ago was potentially one of the great discoveries of our time.

1996年8月,美国国家航天和航空局宣布在南极洲发现了一颗来自火星的陨石,其中可能包含着其他星球存在古老生命的证据。(3) 正如克林顿总统那天所说,发现亿万年前火星上可能存在生命这件事, 有可能是我们时代最伟大的发现之一。

10After the excitement wore down and initial papers were published, other researchers began looking at samples from the same meteorite. (4) Some concluded that the "evidence of life" was mostly contamination from Antarctic ice or that there was nothing organic at all in the rock.

当兴奋和激动慢慢平息,首批论文发表之后,其他研究人员开始研究取自同一颗陨石的样本。(4) 有些人得出结论说,这些“生命的证据”大多来自南极冰的污染,或者说那块石头里根本就没有有机物。

11Was this a failure of science, as some news reports trumpeted

这是某些新闻报道所鼓噪的科学的失败吗

12No! It was a good example of the scientific method working the way it is supposed to. Scientists spend years on research, announce their findings, and these findings are examined by other scientists. That's how we learn. Like climbing a mountain, we struggle up three feet and fall back two. It's a process filled with disappointments and reverses, but somehow we keep moving ahead.

不!这正是科学研究以其应有的方式进行的一个范例。科学家经过多年研究发布成果,其成果再由其他科学家加以检验。我们就是这样增进知识的。正如爬山,我们费力爬上三英尺,又掉下去两英尺。这是个充满失望与挫折的过程,但不管怎样,我们一直往前迈进。

Unit 4 American Dream

Part Text A A Tonh Trivisonno's American DreamⅡ

The American Dream means different things to different people. But for many, particularly immigrants, it means the opportunity to make a better life for themselves. For them the dream is that

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