Oxford University牛津大学

Oxford University is the oldest university in Britain and one of the world's most famous institutions of higher learning. Oxford University was established during the 1100's. It is located in Oxford, England, about 80 kilometers northwest of London.


The university has over 16,300 students (1999-2000), almost a quarter of these students are from overseas and more than 130 nationalities are represented. It consists of 35 colleges, plus five private halls established by various religious groups. Three o f the five private halls are for men only. Of the colleges, St. Hilda's and Somerville are for women, and the rest are for men and women.

牛津大学有16,300多名学生(1999-2000),其中留学生占将近四分之一。他们来自130多个国家。牛津大学有35个学院,还有5个由不同宗教团体建立的私人学院。5个私人学院中,有3个只招男生。学院中,圣希尔达和萨默维尔学院只收女生,其他均为男女兼收。At Oxford, each college is a corporate body distinct from the university and is governed by its own head and fellows. Most fellows are college instructors called tutors, and the rest are university professors and lecturers. Each college manages its own buildings and property, elects its own fellows, and selects and admits its own undergraduate students. The university provides some libraries, laboratories, and other facilities, but the colleges take primary responsibility for the teaching and well-being of their students.


Each student at Oxford is assigned to a tutor, who supervises the student's program of study, primarily through tutorials. Tutorials are weekly meetings of one or two students with their tutor. Students may see other tutors for specialized instruction. They may also attend lectures given by university teachers. Students choose which lectures to attend on the basis of their own special interests and on the advice of their tutors.


The university, not the individual colleges, grants degrees. The first degree in the arts or sciences is the Bachelor of Arts with honors. Oxford also grants higher degrees, diplomas, and certificates in a wide variety of subjects.


The Rhodes scholarship program enables students from the United States, Canada, and many other nations to study at Oxford for a minimum of two years. The British government grants Marshall scholarships to citizens of the United States for study at Oxford and other universities that are located in Britain.


The competition for scholarships and grants is, however, extremely strong and there are usually strict requirements. Students should check carefully that they are eligible to apply for a particular scholarship before making an application as most of the schemes are restricted to certain nationalities and/or programs.


The students and staff at Oxford are actively involved in over 55 initiatives (2001), including visits to more than 3,700 schools and colleges, to encourage the brightest and best students to apply to Oxford, whatever their background.


The university has been named the UK's most innovative university in the Launchit 2001 competition, which aimed to discover which British university has demonstrated the greatest achievements in innovation and enterprise across the broadest range of activity. In the national Teaching Quality Assessment exercises for 2000, Oxford was awarded top marks in six out of ten subjects assessed.


Oxford, Stanford and Y ale Universities have recently become partners in a joint 'distance learning' venture, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning, which will provide online courses in the arts and sciences.


The mission of Oxford is to aim at achieving and maintaining excellence in every area of its teaching and research, maintaining and developing its historical position as a world-class university, and enriching the international, national, and regional communities through the fruits of its research and the skills of its graduates.


In support of this aim the university will provide the facilities and support for its staff to pursue innovative research by responding to developments in the intellectual environment and society at large; and promote challenging and rigorous teaching which benefits from a fruitful interaction with the research environment, facilitating the exchange of ideas through tutorials and small-group learning and exploiting the University's resources in its libraries, museums, and scientific collections, to equip its graduates to play their part at a national and international level.



Y our Dream Job: A Click A way鼠标轻点,美梦成真

Less than a month from graduation day, Theresa Smith of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, had yet to find the right job. The career placement center referred the liberal-arts major to JOB-TRAK, an Internet site listing 45,000 entry-level positions.


Smith selected four keywords: Chicago, business, marketing and full-time. Immediately she found 45 jobs meeting her criteria, including one as an assistant to an administrator at the University of Chicago’s business school. Four weeks later she was hired at a starting salary of $32,000.

史密斯选择了四个关键词:Chicago(芝加哥),business(商务),marketing(营销),full time(全职)。她马上就找到45个工作合乎她的标准,其中一个是芝加哥商业学院行政助理。四个星期以后,她得到了这份工作,底薪32,000美元。

“I had no training,”says Smith, “but the Internet was extremely easy to use. I’d never have known about this job without it.”


Smith is one American who clicked her way into a job. Steven Tools is another.


In 1996, the Rockville, Md., resident came across an employment site named CareerBuilder. He had just been promoted to director of marketing for a company that produces tradeshow exhibits and wasn’t looking for a job. But curious, he decided to “give it a try.”


Tools filled out a profile with the keywords marketing manager and entered his electronic-mail address. Within a week his computer’s mailbox was filling up with available positions. Two interviews later he jumped to a new job. “The Internet is like hiring a personal assistant,”says Tools. “Effortlessly you can become aware of opportunities that may elevate your career.”

图尔斯填写了一份简历,关键词是market manager(行销经理),并输入了自己的电子邮箱地址。不到一个星期,他的邮箱里就塞满了可供选择的职位。他去了两家公司面试,然后就跳槽了。“有了因特网,就像雇了一个私人助理,”图尔斯说。“你可以毫不费劲地留意到一些机会,让你的事业上一个新台阶。”

Even a couple of years ago, most job listings on the Internet were in high-tech fields. Today, non-technical jobs —salesclerks, bank tellers, secretaries, for example —are the fastest growing segment of Internet employment opportunities. Most major newspapers and trade publications have online versions of their classified listings, enabling job-seekers to scan for work available across town, in another state, or

around the world.

仅在两年以前,因特网上提供的工作绝大部分还局限于高科技领域。现在,非技术性的工作,如售货员、银行职员、秘书等,是网上招聘机会增长最为迅速的部分。大型报纸和专业出版物的分类广告大多都有在线版,求职者能搜索到市内、国内甚至国外的一些工作机会。Madeline Gragg and Nedzad Dozlic are still another two who clicked their luck online.


In 1996, Madeline Gragg, a 28-year-old high school teacher from St. Louis, wanted a change. When a friend mentioned teaching English in Japan, Gragg was intrigued. 1996年,圣路易斯的一名高中老师,28岁的马德琳·格拉格,想换个工作。有个朋友提到在日本教书的事,格拉格很感兴趣。

She visited the popular Y ahoo! website and typed teaching English in Japan for a list of employment opportunities. She then followed the procedure for the online application. A week later she received a call and set up an interview with a recruiter in Chicago and got the job.

她访问了著名的yahoo!网站,输入了teaching English in Japan(在日本教英语),找到了一个招聘机会的列表,然后按照在线申请的要求提交了申请。一星期后,她接到一个电话,与芝加哥的一名招聘人员进行了面试,得到了这份工作。

Nedzad Dozlic, 27 years old, was scanning the Houston Chronicle’s Web site for the latest baseball trades. While online, he decided to check out the classifieds and spotted a job for a driver at a local car dealership. A refugee of the war in Bosnia, Dozlic had had a variety of jobs but was now ready for something new. He read more about th e position on the dealer’s Internet site and called the number listed. Two days later he was hired. “It’s really funny,” he says, “I was just checking sports, and I ended up with a better job.”

27岁的内德扎德·多兹里克,当时在浏览Houston Chronicle网站,了解最新的棒球消息。在线时,他查看了分类广告,发现一家当地的汽车交易商招聘司机。多兹里克是波斯尼亚的战争难民,曾从事过多种不同的工作,但现在他想换个工作。他从该交易商的网站上了解了该职位的更多情况,然后拨通了上面提供的电话。两天后,他被雇用了。“真有意思,”他说,“我本来只是在查看体育消息,结果却找到了一份更好的工作。”

Another valuable use of the Internet is to research potential employers. When Wendy Mello started her job search in the summer of 1997, she logged on to CareerBuilder, where she learned of a human resources opening at Arbitron’s, a media-information-services company in Columbia, Maryland. With a click of her mouse, Mello sent her résuméto the company via e-mail and soon received an invitation for an interview.


T o find out more about the company, she clicked on to Artitron’s home page and that of its parent company, Ceridian Corp., where she reviewed an annual report and the company’s financial performance.

为了了解该公司的更多情况,她又点击了Artitron的主页,以及它的母公司Ceridian Corp.


Mello also wanted to know how much she’d have to earn to maintain her present standard of living. Using an online salary calculator, she typed in her current salary, $34,000, and Baltimore (the nearest big city to Columbia). Within seconds her computer flashed $44,000. “Because of the salary calculator, I knew what to ask for,”says Mello.


By accessing an online real estate service, she saw color photos of rental properties, including detailed floor plans. When Mello arrived in Columbia, she felt completely prepared. The interview was a success, and the next day she was offered a job at a salary of $47,800.


“The Internet is easy to use and it works,”says one job seeker, “What more could you want?”



The victim广告的受害者

Y ou could call me a shop-a-holic, as most of my friends do, but I call myself a lover of fashion. Sitting in my room, I look in my closet at all my belongings and wonder what else I want to buy. Abercrombie, Guess, J Crew and Ralph Lauren are just a few of the name-brand items that clutter my room. And I want more. I've never stopped to question whether I'm getting what I'm paying for, though I've always been a "smart" shopper, a sale shopper. But, as I learn more about my future field, marketing, I realize that I am a victim of advertising. All the things I want and buy are influenced by what magazines, television, and other advertisers tell me I need to buy. 你可以说我是购物狂,朋友大都这样说我,不过我自认为是个时尚爱好者。坐在房间里,看着衣橱里所有的东西,我总是在想还有什么要买的。Abercrombie, Guess, J Crew, Ralph Lauren,还有其他名牌产品,充斥着我的房间,但我还想要更多。我从不考虑我买的东西是否物有所值,虽然我买东西一直都很“精明”,买的都是打折的商品。然而,我对将来要从事的营销领域了解越深入,就越明白自己原来是深受广告的左右。我想要的,我所买的,都受到杂志、电视或别的广告商的影响,它们在告诉我该买些什么。

Everyone wears clothes. They can be a statement, a style, or a definition of who you are. They can also be a simple necessity. For me, clothing has meant different things. As a child, I wore what my mother gave me or the hand-me-downs from my sister. I never questioned how I looked, but I liked to dress up.


In middle school, I became more concerned with my appearance, like most girls. But as I progressed to high school, advertising became a big influence. Boys began to notice girls, and all the girls wanted to look good. The clothing in high school became something that defined you; it identified you with a certain group. Wearing Abercrombie jeans meant you were the preppy all-American girl, a Guess shirt meant you were the snobby rich girl, and anything worse or less than that was unacceptable.初中时,像大多数女生一样,我开始在意自己的打扮。但从高中开始,广告对我产生了很大的影响。男生开始留意女生,每个女生都想打扮得漂漂亮亮。高中时衣着界定你的身份,并将你归入某一群体。穿Abercrombie牌的牛仔裤说明你是典型的美国女生,干净利落;穿Guess的衬衫说明你是富家千金,自命不凡,任何其他差一些的衣服都是不可接受的。

In college, advertising hit me in a different way. College is a place where typically no one knows you at first, so you can be whoever you want to be. There are so many students and such a variety of people that clothing begins to define you less and less and your personality begins to define you more and more. Everyone is growing and changing and beginning to learn who they really are. Y et my friends and I still turn to advertising, now not only to stay in fashion but more so to find our own style. In my quest for identity, the style of clothing I choose reflects me. It shows my personality and shows what type of person I am.


Despite my choice to have my clothing reflect and not define me, I remain a victim of advertising. Although I look to ads for the upcoming styles, I am still affected by the underlying images behind them. Advertising reflects society and also adds to societal definitions. Advertisers show us people around us, yet they choose only a certain look. By showing us just these people, they are defining those few as the beautiful people. Advertising feeds off human insecurities and makes us want to be like these beautiful people. Our insecurities with wanting to be popular and wanting to be loved are used against us. Society fosters the fascination that we should not be who we are, and advertisers use this to influence us to believe certain messages. If we do not look like the models, we are not beautiful. If we are not thin and curvy we are not attractive. Even if we have great personalities, most people will not like us if we are not physically beautiful.


Advertisers use our weaknesses to tell us what is new, what we should be like, what is cool, and what is hot. Because human nature makes us want to be popular and glamorous, we follow the lead ads give us. Is it the victim's fault for believing, or the fault of society for allowing advertisers to do so? These are the questions I often ask myself as I enter the field of marketing. It is very easy to use human insecurities as a means of targeting consumption, but is it right? How will we ever know unless we step back and stop reading magazines and watching television? Until then, I will remain a victim of advertising. And so will almost everyone else.



Death of dream梦断魂萦

They boarded the plane in New Y ork City with high hopes. The 18 members of the United States figure skating team would fly to Brussels, Belgium. Then they were to go on to Prague, Czechoslovakia, for the world ice skating championships. A photo was taken of the team members as they stood on the steps of the Sabena Airlines 707 jet. The best of America’s skaters beamed for the camera. Mostly young, they laughed and giggled, their eyes dancing with excitement. This was going to be the time of their lives.


There were three ice skating pairs on the plane. Two were brother-and-sister teams: Laurie and William Hickox and Ida and Ray Hadley. There was also the husband-and-wife team of Patricia and Robert Dineen. But the brightest star of all was a singles skater. Her name was Laurence “Laurie”Owen. Only 16 years old, she had won the North American title for women just two days earlier. Laurie had great skill, dazzling grace, and a winning smile. 机上有三对双人组合,其中两对是兄妹组合:希科克斯兄妹和哈德利兄妹,另一对是夫妻搭档,迪宁夫妇。但众星之中最耀眼的是一名单人滑选手。她叫劳伦斯·欧文,人称“劳利”。年仅16岁的她,两天前刚夺得北美花样滑冰女子冠军。劳利技巧娴熟,优雅无比,笑靥如花。

Laurie came from a skating family. Her mother, Maribel, had won the U.S figure skating championship nine times. Laurie had an older sister who shared her mother’s name. Maribel Owen, age 20, was not quite as strong a skater as Laurie. Still, she had just won the U.S. senior pairs championship. All three of the Owen women were on the plane bound for Brussels.



Sabena Flight 548 took off at 7:30 P.M. on February 14, 1961. The flight across the Atlantic was pleasant. Early the next day, the plane neared the airport at Brussels. There seemed to be no cause for concern. There was no distress signal of any kind from the pilot, Captain Louis Lambrechts. There were no storms or high winds in the region. In fact, the weather was perfect. It was warm and sunny.


But something must have gone wrong in the cockpit. During the last few minutes before the scheduled landing, Captain Lambrechts did not contact the Brussels airport. Just before 10:00 A.M., he lowered the wheels of the jet and began his approach to land. But, at the last moment, he pulled the plane up. Perhaps he saw another jet taking off and feared a collision. Or perhaps he already knew that something was wrong with his plane. In any case, he circled the airport and prepared to try again.


Lambrechts came in a second time, flying about 500 feet over a farm near the village of Berg, northeast of Brussels. Then he suddenly increased his speed and pulled the plane into a steep climb. By this time, officials in the Brussels control tower could tell that something was very wrong. “We saw the crash coming,”said one official. “They couldn’t have been faster,”the official said. “But there was nothing they could do.”


normal approach to land when it A man riding on a train saw that the plane was in trouble. “The plane appeared to be making a suddenly reared up into the sky,”he said. “Then it fell back like a great stone and we heard the explosion.”


It was 10:05 A.M. when the Sabena jet hit the ground and exploded in a ball of flames. It just missed hitting a row of houses. All 72 people on board were killed, including 49 Americans and 11 members of the crew. There was nothing anyone could do. The crash site was a scene of total destruction. Debris was scattered over 200 yards. Charred remains and body parts were strewn all over the area. Several couples on the plane were found locked in a final embrace.



The crash stunned skaters and figure skating fans around the globe. Never before had anything so tragic happened in their sport. To honor the dead, the Prague competition was canceled. The crash was particularly devastating for some families. In addition to the Owen family, with its loss of three women, nine other skating families suffered more than one death. The hopes and dreams of these athletes had ended in a flash. All that remained as rescuers combed through the wreckage were three pairs of melted skates dangling from one of the wings.



My Advice to Students: Education Counts



Hundreds of students send me e-mail each year asking for advice about education. They want to know what to study, or whether it's okay to drop out of college since that's what I did.


A smaller number of parents send messages, seeking guidance for their son or daughter. "How can we steer our child toward success?" they ask.

也有不少家长给我写信,为子女寻求指导。他们问:“我们怎样才能把孩子引向成功之路?”My basic advice is simple and heartfelt: Get the best education you can. Take advantage of high school and college. Learn how to learn.


It's true that I dropped out of college to start Microsoft, but I was at Harvard for three years before dropping out——and I'd love to have the time to go back. As I've said before, nobody should drop out of college unless they believe they face the opportunity of a lifetime. And even then they should reconsider.


Kathy Cridland, a sixth-grade teacher in Ohio, wrote to say, "Several of my students claim that you never finished high school. Since you are a success, my students perceive that as a reason not to care much about getting a good education."在俄亥俄州教六年级的老师凯西·克里德兰写道,“我的好几个学生声称你根本没有读完高中。因为你成功了,我的学生就觉得他们也可以不必要接受良好的教育。”

I finished high school!


T he computer industry has lots of people who didn't finish college, but I'm not

aware of any success stories that began with somebody dropping out of high school. I actually don't know any high school dropouts, let alone any successful ones.


I n my company's early years we had a bright part-time programmer who threatened to drop out of high school to work full-time. We told him no.


Quite a few of our people didn't finish college, but we discourage dropping out. Having a diploma certainly helps somebody who is looking to us for a job.


College isn't the only place where information exists. Y ou can learn in a library. But somebody handing you a book doesn't automatically foster learning. Y ou want to learn with other people, ask questions, try out ideas and have a way to test your ability. It usually takes more than just a book.


Education should be broad, although it's fine to have deep interests, too.接受的教育应该是广泛的,虽然对某些领域情有独钟也不失为一件好事。

In high school there were periods when I was highly focused on writing software, but for most of my high school years I had wide-ranging academic interests. My parents encouraged this, and I'm grateful that they did.


Although I attended a lot of different kinds of classes in college, I signed up for only one computer class the whole time. I read about all kinds of things. 大学期间,我修了很多不同的课程,但我从头至尾只选修了一门计算机课。我读书涉猎很广。

One parent wrote me that her 15-year-old son "lost himself in the hole of the computer." He got an A in website design, but other grades were sinking, she said.


This boy is making a mistake. High school and college offer you the best chance to learn broadly —math, history, various sciences —and to do projects with other kids that teach you first-hand about group dynamics. It's fine to take a deep interest in computers, dance, language or any other discipline, but not if it jeopardizes breadth.


If you fall into an obsessive pattern in high school, you've got two problems. One is that you're unlikely to change when you go to college. The other is that if you don't get reasonably good grades, it's hard to go to a college that has the highly motivated,

capable students who can really help you learn about the world.


In college it's appropriate to think about specialization. Getting real expertise in an area of interest can lead to success——unless the specialty ends up being a dead end or you're not good at. Graduate school is one way to get specialized knowledge, although extended college education isn't always a good investment from a purely economic standpoint.



1.任何年满18岁的人都有资格投票(vote)。(be eligible to)

Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote.

2.每学期开学前,这些奖学金的申请表格就会由学校发给每一个学生。(apply for, scholarship)

A form to apply for these scholarships is sent by the university to each student before the start of each semester.

3. 遵照医生的建议,我决定戒烟。(on the advice of)

On the advice of my doctor, I decided to give up smoking.

4.公园位于县城的正中央。(be located in)

The park is located right in the center of town.


The university provides all the materials and facilities we desire.


1警察们正忙着填写关于这场事故的各种表格。(fill out)

The policemen are busy filling out forms about the accident.

2.我想在还车之前把油箱(fuel tank)加满。(fill up)

I want to fill up the fuel tank before returning the car.

3.如果你要投诉,最好遵循正确的程序。(follow the procedure)

If you want to make a complaint, you’d better follow the c orrect procedure.


We couldn’t have finished the experiment so soon without John’s help.

5.暴风雨之后,岸边的人们焦急地搜索湖面以期发现小船的踪迹。(scan for)

After the storm, the people on the shore anxiously scanned the lake for any sign of the boat.


1. 我们需要通过减少道路上的车辆以降低燃料消耗。(consumption)

We need to cut down on our fuel consumption by having fewer cars on the road.

2.电费上涨增加了我们的负担。(add to)

The rise in power costs has added to our burden.

3. 你应该自己判断行事,别总是跟在你哥哥的后面。(follow the lead)

Y ou should judg e by yourself, and not always follow your brother’s lead.

4.那种发型今年很流行,但是我想明年就会过时。(in fashion)

That hairstyle is in fashion this year, but I am afraid it will be out of fashion next year.

5.在追求真理的过程中,我们注定(fate to)要遭受失败的痛苦。(in one’s quest for)

We are fated to suffer from many failures in our quest for truth.


1.她在公共汽车站一直等到末班车进站。(come in)

She waited at the bus stop until the last bus came in.


If there is any way we can be of assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us.

3. 他需要多少船务人员才能使他的游艇(yacht)航行?(crew)

How many crew does he need to sail his yacht?

4.虽然她的新书没有上一本好,但是我还是喜欢它。(not quite as)

I enjoyed her new book though it’s not quite as good as her last one.

5.我从未遇到过如此善良的人。(never before)

Never before have I met such a kind person.


1. 我们得把感情放在一边,从专业的(professional)角度来对待这件事。(from a...standpoint) We have to put aside our emotions and take it from a professional standpoint.

2.这部戏非常精彩,我很快就沉浸于激动人心的剧情之中。(lose oneself in)

The play was so wonderful that I soon lost myself in the excitement of it.

3. 她没有什么爱好——除非你把看电视也算是一种爱好。(unless)

She hasn’t got any hobbies — unless you call watching TV a hobby.


He said that he had got the information first-hand from the Mayor himself.


Since you can’t answer the question, perhaps we’d better ask someone else.


1.那件工作很难做,不过我想试试看。(have a shot)

It’s a difficult job, but I’d like to have a shot.

2.这是一本关于商务实践而非理论的书。(as opposed to)

This is a book about business practice as opposed to theory.

3. 社会活动从未耽误她的学习。(in the way)

2.Social activities never get in the way of her studies.

4.直到1911年人们才发现第一种维生素(vitamin)。(It is not until...that)

It was not until 1911 that the first of the vitamins was identified.


Natural disasters have obviously contributed to the country’s economic crisis.