应用化学专业英语

Unit 1 The Roots of Chemistry

I. Comprehension.

1.C

2. B

3. D

4. C

5. B

II. Make a sentence out of each item by rearranging the words in brackets.

1.The purification of an organic compound is usually a matter of considerable

difficulty, and it is necessary to employ various methods for this purpose.

2.Science is an ever-increasing body of accumulated and systematized

knowledge and is also an activity by which knowledge is generated.

3.Life, after all, is only chemistry, in fact, a small example of chemistry

observed on a single mundane planet.

4.People are made of molecules; some of the molecules in people are rather

simple whereas others are highly complex.

5.Chemistry is ever present in our lives from birth to death because without

chemistry there is neither life nor death.

6.Mathematics appears to be almost as humankind and also permeates all

aspects of human life, although many of us are not fully aware of this.

III. Translation.

1.(a) chemical process (b) natural science (c) the technique of distillation

化学过程自然科学蒸馏技术

2.It is the atoms that make up iron, water, oxygen and so on

正是原子构成了铁,水,氧等

3.Chemistry has a very long history, in fact, human activity in chemistry goes

back to prerecorded times/predating recorded times.

化学具有悠久的历史,事实上,人类的化学活动可追溯到无记录时代以前4.According to/From the evaporation of water, people know/realized that

liquids can turn/be/change into gases under certain conditions/circumstance/environment.

根据水的蒸发现象,人们认识到液体在一定的条件下可以变成气体

5.You must know the properties of the material before you use it.

在你使用这种材料之前,你必须弄清它的各种性质

IV. Translation

化学是三种基础自然科学之一,另外两种是物理和生物。自从宇宙大爆炸以来,化学过程持续进行,甚至地球上生命的出现可能也是化学过程的结果。人们也许认为生命是三步进化的最终结果,第一步非常快,其余两步相当慢。这三步是:(I)物理进化(化学元素的产生),(II)化学进化(分子和生物分子的形成);和(III)生物进化(有机物的形成和发展)。

V. Solution:

(1)The relative mass of 1H and 12C atoms can be calculated from their absolute masses in grams.

1

24

12

23

H 1.6735100.083986C 1.992610--?==? If the mass of a 12C atom is exactly 12 amu,then the mass of a 1H atom to five significant figures must be 1.0078 amu. 12 amu x 0.083986 = 1.0078 amu

(2)

First we calculate k and then use the first-order rate equation.

[][]

()()404

340.693

1.2110/5730log

2.303

1.000 1.2110/log

0.477 2.303

2.303log 2.09 6.11061001.2110/k yr

yr

A kt A yr

t t yr yr

---=

=?=?==

=?=?

The bone was tossed away (more precisely, the animal whose bone was died) about 6100 years ago, or about 4100 B.C. We can thus be sure that a village was in existence at that place at that time.

Unit 7 The Nomenclature of Inorganic Substances

I. Comprehension

1.A

2.B

3.C

4.C

5.B

II. Give the systematic name for the following

ammonium ion ; copper(II) ion ; strontium ion; Ccopper(I) ion; iron(II) ion; zinc ion; hydrogen ion; lead((II) ion; aluminum;

silver ion; magnesium ion; chromium(III) ion; Barium ; Manganese(II) ion; iron(III) ion; calcium ion; mercury(II) ion; chromium(II) ion; tin(II) ion.

carbon monoxide; ditrogen trioxide; carbon dioxide; diphosphorus pentoxide; sulfur trioxide; dichlorine heptoxide

arsenate ion; sulfite ion; hydride ion; arsenite ion; bromide ion; hydroxide ion; phosphate ion; chlorate ion; hypochlorite ion;

phosphate ion; chloride ion; iodate ion;

carbonate ion; chlorite ion; nitrate ion;

chromate ion; cyanide ion; iodide ion;

dichromate ion; fluoride ion; nitrate ion;

oxide ion; hydrogen carbonate ion; nitrite ion;

sulfide ion; hydrogen sulfate ion; perchlorate ion;

sulfate ion; hydrogen sulfite ion; permanganate ion.

III. Complete the table.

Formula Old name Systematic name

FeO iron (II) oxide

Fe2O3iron (III) oxide

Sn(OH)2tin(II) hydroxide

Sn(OH)4tin(IV) hydroxide

Hg2SO4mercury (I) sulfate

HgSO4mercury (II) sulfate NaCLO sodium hypochlorite

K2Cr2O7potassium dichromate

Cu3(AsO4)2copper(II) arsenate

Cr(C2H3O2)3chromium(IV) acetate

IV. Acid names may be obtained directly from its acid ion by changing the name of the acid ion (negative ion). Use the rule to give the name of the following acid. Formula of acid Old name Name of acid

H2CO3carbonic acid

HClO2chlorous acid

HClO4perchloric acid

HCN hydrocyanic acid

HBr hydrobromic acid

H4SiO4silicic acid

H3AsO4arsenic acid

V. Complete the sentences with the proper form of the word given at the end of the sentence.

1.is altered;

2.To illustrate

3.indicates

4.should expect

5.would cancel

6. are pulled

7.depend on

8.are; referred

9.formed 10.have discussed

VI. Translation

1. Matter can neither be created nor be destroyed/eliminated.

2. It is necessary that a scientist must know how to use fingures to get an accutate answer to question.

3. Any substance is made of atoms whether it is solid, liquid or gas.

4. The experiment was successful. It’s results was the same as what we had expected.

5. It will not be long before we finish the experiment.

VII. Write equations for the following acid-base reactions. Use the information in inorganic textbook to predict whether the equilibrium will favor the reactants or the products. (Partially Solved)

Solutin to (a): Cyanide is the conjugate base of HCN. It can accept a proton from formic acid:

C

O

H

H

O +C

N C O

H O

C N

H +

formic acid stronger acid cyanide

应用化学专业英语

stronger base formate weaker base

weaker acid

Reading from inorganic textbook, formic acid (p K a =3.76) is a stronger acid than HCN (p K a =9.22), and cyanide is a stronger base than formate. The products (weaker acid and base) are favored. …………..

VIII. Write equations for the net reactions which occur when the following materials are added to a sodium-ammonia solution. Answer: (1) 2CH 3GeH 3 + 2e am - → H 2 + 2CH 3GeH 2-

(2) I 2 + 2e am - → 2I -

(3) (C 2H 5)2S + 2e am - + NH 3 → C 2H 5S- + C 2H 6 + NH 2-

Unit 10 Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons

I. Comprehension

1.C

2.D

3.B

4.A

5.B

6.B

II. Name the following compounds by the IUPAC system 1 CH 3(CH 2)nCH 3 (n=2, 3, 4, 6, respectively) butane, pentane, hexane, octane 2 (CH 3)2-CH 2-CH 2-CH 2-CH 3 2-methylpentane

3 (CH 3)3C-CH 2-CH(C 2H 5)-CH 2-CH 3 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane

4 (CH 3)2CH-CH 2CH 2-CH(CH 2CH 2CH 3)-CH(

CH 3)2

5-isopropyl-2-methyloctane 5 CH 3-CH 2-CH 2-C(CH 2CH 2CH 3)2-CH(CH 3)2 4-isopropyl-4-propylheptane 6 ◇-CH 2-CH(CH 3)2 isobutylcyclobutane 7 CH 2=C(C 2H 5)(CH(CH 3)2) 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1-butene 8 CH 3-CH 2-CH=CH-CHCl-CH 3 2-chloro-3-hexene 9 CH 3-CH(CH 3)-CH(C 2H 5)-C ≡C-CH 3 4-ethyl-5-methyl-2-hexyne 10

CH 2=CH-C ≡CH

1-buten-3-yne

11 (CH3)2CH-CH2CH(OH)CH34-methyl-2-pentanol

12 CH3CH2CH=CHCH(OH)CH33-hexen-2-ol

13 (CH3)3C-OH 2-methyl-2-propanol

14 (CH3)3C-OCH2H52-ethoxy-2-methylpropane

15 (CH3)2CH-CH2-O-C2H51-ethoxy-2-methylpropane

16 (CH2OH)21,2-ethanediol

17 CH3-CH(OH)-CH2(OH) 1,2-proanediol

18 CH2(OH)-CH(OH)-CH2(OH) 1,2,3-propanetriol

19 CH3CH2NH2aminoethane

20 CH3CH2CH2CH(CH3)CH-NH-CH3N-methyl-1-amino-2-methylpent

ane

III. Draw structures for the following compounds.

1 3-octene C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C

2 3-methy-2-heptene

3 cyclohexene

4 2-pentyne C-C≡C-C-C

5 3,3-dimethylhexyne

6 3-bromotoluene CH3

Br

7 vinyl chloride C=C-Cl

8 acetylene C≡C

9 para-dichlorobenzene

Cl Cl

Br

10 m-chlorobromobenzene

Cl

11 toluene CH

3 12 chlorobenzene Cl

Br

13 1,2-dibromobenzene

Br 14 naphthalene

15 anthracene

16 phenanthrene

17 2-methyl-1-propanol C C

C OH

C

18 Cyclohexanol OH

19 Methoxyethene C C O C

20 trans-2-ethoxycyclohexanol OH

OC2H5

IV. Decide which item best completes each unfinished sentence.

1.A

2.A

3.B

4.C

V. Each of the following names is incorrect. Draw the structure represented by the incorrect name (or a consistent structure if the name is ambiguous), and give your drawing the correct name.

(…………)

Unit 11 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

I. Comprehension

1.B

2.B

3.C

4.D

5.A

6.C

II. Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below.

1.brought out

2.dozen or so; put together

3.are made of ;divided by

4.are different from

5.on the contrary; consist of

6.summed up

7.stand for

8.such as

9.are; dependent on 10.break down into

III. Put in proper prepositions or adverbs into the blanks.

1.with; as

2.to

3.about

4.from

5.into

IV. Translation

1. Similarly, solvent also may not be liquid matter but the others

2. A graph plotting solubility against temperature is called a solubility curve. ( The curve plot drawn (made / produced) by solubility as one coordinate and temperature as another coordinate is called solubility curve.)

3. Air is mixture of gases , the most abundant of which is nitrogen in the form of N2 (molecules).

4. The direction of the reaction and the position of the equilibrium may also be affected by the temperature, pressure, and other conditions.

5. Hydrogen has a great affinity for oxygen and easily combines with it to form water.

V. Translation

玻意尔(Bohr)模型提出不久后,人们就发现原子中的电子比Bohr提出的模型要复杂得多。实验证实电子既有粒子的性质(质量)也有光的特性(波的特性)。因为它的两重性,电子不能被看作是在确定范围内绕核旋转的一种简单粒子,而且如Bohr所说的,如果电子高速运动,我们就不能确切地知道它的位臵。

Unit 13 Ultraviolet and Visible Molecular Spectroscopy

I. Comprehension

1.C

2.D

3.D

4.D

5.B

II. Fill in the blanks

of; as; in; out; In; for; for ; of; in; then; to; for;since(for) ; into.

III. Fill the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrase in its proper form.

1. account for

2.take part in

3.think of ….as

4.As compared with

5. is attached to

6.on the contrary

7.As in the case of

8.in contrast with as against

9. owing to 10.Except for.

Unit 17 Crystallisation

I. Comprehension

1.D

2.A

3.A

4.D

5.A

II. Fill in the blanks with the proper word given below.

Stage; interna; symmetrical; basis; physical; Furthermore; composed; responsible; reasonable; overall.

III. Choose the item from (1) ~ (6) that best matches the item in(a) ~ (f) to make a correct sentence.

1~a; 2~b; 3~c; 4~d; 5~e; 6~f

VI.Translate the following into Chinese

共沸物;类质同晶;过饱和;砷酸盐;晶核;异丙基;醇;钠;硫酸盐;间甲酚;糖膏;十水合物;结晶质的;同系物;衍生物;结晶;四硼酸盐;盐析;乙基乙酰苯胺;矿物油。

Uint18 Distillation

I. Comprehension

1.B

2.D

3.A

4. A

II. Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below.

1.In order to

2.in relation to

3. in the case of

4.in the end

5. in a number of

6.lead to

7.a messy way

掌握以下词汇:

flashdistillation闪蒸;exit stream出流;e quilibrium curve 平衡曲线; weir堰; redistillation 重蒸;apparatus 设备;overhead product塔顶产物; enthalpy焓; intersection 交点; auxiliary辅助装置; rectifying section精馏段;reflux回流; reboller 再沸器; stripping section 汽提(提馏)段;bottom product 塔底产物

Unit 21 catalysis

I. Comprehension

1.A

2.D

3.D

4. B

5.C

IV. Translate the following sentences into English

(1) We define activity as size (measure) of catalysis of catalyst

(2) catalytic reaction may be carried out in different phases, of which mechanisms are generally consistent

(3) Enzymes are the most efficient proteins in the human body which accelerate the metabolism of the human body.

V. Translate the following into English

reaction equilibrium; repetitiveness; elementary reaction step; stability; catalytic cycle; activity; quantitative analysis; selectivity; metabolic reaction; chemical energy; reaction mechanism; polymer nylon(or nylon);qualitative analysis; molecular-sieve; tubular reactor; inhibitor; stoichiometry.

Unit 22 Cosmetics introduction

I. Comprehension

1.D

2.A

3.D

4. D

5. (1)True; (2)True; (3) False.

II. Fill in the blanks with the proper word given below.

Focused on; considerations; particular; boosting; price; affect; commitment; different; proposed.

III. Put in proper prepositions or adverbs into the blanks.

1. for, of;

2. to;

3. for

4. for(to)

5. of ,about.

V、Translate the following into English.

对亚苯基二胺,降解,丙烯,头皮屑,洗剂, N-亚硝基二乙醇胺,致癌的,未成熟(or早熟),香波(or洗发剂),激素(荷尔蒙),防汗剂,诱变性,脱臭剂(芳香剂),推论(必然结果),甘油

VI、Translate the following sentences into English

surfactant;environmental pollution;emulsifier;side-effect;dirt;detergent;perspiration;preservative.

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