What is genuine friendship? Some classical views may help us understand the notion of friendship more clearly. Aristotle distinguishes genuine friendship from two other forms: one based on mutual utility and the other on pleasure. While the ground (4) for the latter two forms of friendship is closely related to material benefits, short-term interests or age, genuine friendship occurs only between those who are similar in their goodness. Cicero, another ancient scholar, believes that true friends' actions and lives should leave no question as to their honor, purity, equity and liberality. Whether or not one possesses any superiority over the other, both must regard themselves as equals of the other and try their best to preserve the friendship. Moreover, true friends are bound together, as a friend is said to be a mirror (11) in which you may perceive and know yourself. When virtuous friends are bonded together by a commitment to the good, they can recognize each other's moral excellence and fulfill their self-improvement.

Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death. In the young there is a justification for this feeling. Y oung men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat ignoble. The best way to overcome it - so at least it seems to me - is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. An individual human existence should be like a river – small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past rocks and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue. And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will not be unwe lcome. I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.

The question now arises, what can you do to get over culture shock as quickly as possible? The answer is getting to know the people of the host country. But this you cannot do with any success without knowing the language, for language is the principal symbol system of communication. Now we all know that learning a new language is difficult, particularly to adults. This task alone is quite enough to cause frustration and anxiety, no matte how skillful language teachers are in making it easy for you. But once you begin to be able to carry on a friendly conversation with your maid, your neighbor, or to go on shopping trips alone, you not only gain confidence

and a feeling of power but a whole new world of cultural meanings opens up for you.

翻译U1 1.以共同兴趣为基础的友谊是不容易破裂的

The friendship grounded on common interest does not break up easily


Children must learn to distinguish between violence and bravery in computer games. 3.当今世界每天涌现如此多新鲜事物,要求一个人什么都知晓是不合情理的There spring up so many new tings everyday in the world that it is no longer sensible(明智的;合情理的)to expect a person to know everything.


Laws do not regulate such things as betrayal to friends, that is why there is what we call the court of morality


Today’s culture is described as fast-food culture, whatever they may be; people just pursue the greatest satisfaction within the shortest time.


As the saying goes, there is no such thing as a free lunch. If you want something, go and earn it

U2 1.无论是友情还是爱情,你都不可能期待自己付出。In either friendship or love, you should never expect to receive the maximum while you give the minimum. 2.我把全部希望寄托在他的承诺上,结果却发现他根本不是个真诚的人。I built all my hopes on his promises, only to find that he was not a man of sincerity at all.

3.我们带母亲去了所有我们能找到的最好的医院,但一切努力都是徒劳的,母亲还是没能熬过那次疾病。We took mother to all the best hospitals we could find, but all our efforts were in vain; she failed to survive the disease.

4.情人节是一个一年一度在2月14日庆祝的节日,一个向自己心仪的对象表达。V alentine’s Day is an annual holiday celebrated on February 14,a perfect day to express love to the object of your affection.

5.在信息时代,通过电子邮件方式跟远方的朋友交流几乎可以.In the information era, communications with far-away friends via e-mail can be almost simultaneous.


Love takes time ,for it is not forged until you have grown used to the other’s company and learned to appreciate the other.

U3 1.千百年来哲学家们费尽心机从各自的角度阐释何为幸福.

For thousands of years philosophers have taken pains to explain the meaning of happiness from their own points of view.

2.刚上大学的时候,突然发现自己得处理所有日常事物,知道那是自己才觉得在父母身边生活真是幸福。When I first came to college,I suddenly found myself left with everything to deal with by myself。I was not until then did I realize that living with my parents was truly a happy experience.

3.你不要总是和别人攀比,否则你可能会陷入忧郁之中,因为毕竟有许多人比你强。Y ou should not always make comparison with others;otherwise,you may be trapped in depression,for there are always others who are better than you.

4.今天人们生活比以前富裕多了,闲暇时间也多了,奇怪的是人们反而觉得生活乏味了。Today people are much better off and enjoy more leisure. Strangely enough,they find life boring.

5.事实上,人生是漫长而缺少兴奋的。如果期待每天都如戏剧般精彩必定会遭遇失望。Life,in effect,is long but short of excitement. Y ou are sure to suffer from inevitable disappointment if you expect everyday life to be as exciting as drama.

6.过于顺利的生活可能具有破坏性,因为人们没有机会学会怎样应对挫折。这能部分解释年轻人居高不下的自杀率。A life that is too smooth may also be destructive because it offers no opportunity for one to learn how to deal with failures. That in part explains the high rates of suicide among young people.

U4 1.他们带着生病的父亲远赴北京,希望能治好他的心脏They took their sick father on a long journey to Beijing in the hope of finding a cure for his heart disease. 2.普及艾滋病知识的活动需要继续开展,这个阶段的重点放在这种病的传播途径。The campaign of Knowing More About AIDS needs to be carried on, and for this stage the emphasis is put on the way the disease is contracted.

3.权力如果运用得当则百姓安居乐业,运用不当则殃及百姓日常生计。If power is properly applied,the lives of the common people will be rendered happy. If not, their daily life will be placed under threat.


Could a government justifiably use nuclear weapons to guard against terrorist attacks?

5.由于缺乏对这种病的了解,许多人依然认为HIV受害者都是自作自受。Owing to ignorance of the disease,many people still believe that HIV victims deserve what they suffer.

6.新发布的关于改善农村医疗系统的报告让我们相信农村地区缺医少药的时代终将结束。The newly issued report on improving the medical system in rural areas leads us to believe that the era is to be an end when such areas are always short of doctors and medicines

U6 1.我们中国人会再三地请客人多吃饭桌上的菜,以表明我们好客。As a proof of our hospitality,we Chinese will repeatedly ask our guests to help themselves to the dishes on the table.

2.正是通过倾听人们的谈话和观察他们的举止,我们才加强了了解社会的能力。It is by means of listening to what people say and observing how they behave that we’re strengthened our own capacity to understand society.

3.安全感常常来自对环境的熟悉,所以人们对于陌生的环境往往会抵制或避开。One’s sense of safety comes from familiarity with the environment;so people have the tendency to resist or avoid new situations.

4.我们常常对某地区的人产生偏见甚至敌意,这是由于我们不熟悉他们。We tend to show prejudice against or even hostility towards people from a certain region,which can be attributed to the fact that we are unfamiliar with then.

5.我觉得直接拒绝是一种礼貌,而我父母却很少说“不”,以免使对方为难。I believe it is polite to decline directly,while my parents seldom say“No” so as not to embarrass others.

6.知识积累有两种方式:亲身体验和间接体验。能为我们打开不同文化世界的阅读属于间接体验。There are two means to build up knowledge:to get it personally or by second-hand experience。Reading,which opens up a new world of different cultures for us, belongs to second-hand experience.

Grammar Review

Unit 1

1.I’ll borrow whichever tent you are not using now(你们现在不用的任何一顶帐


2.Free movies tickets will be given to whoever comes / come first(最早来的人们)

3.We agreed to accept whichever / whatever condition our captain thought was the


4.Friends are forever comforts, Wherever / No matter where I go(无论我走到那里)

their care follows.

5.It is neither possible nor sensible for parents satisfy whatever wishes their child /

children expresses / express(孩子表达的任何愿望)

6.However disappointed / No matter how disappointed you may feel about the

surroundings / environment / situation(不管你对环境有多么失望),you’re supposed to complain less and work more.

7.Respect for the law is the foundation of a civilized society. Whoever breaks it(不


8.David is in the habit of knitting his brows(皱眉头) whenever he concentrates on

a problem(每当他集中精力思考问题的时候)

Unit 4

1.It is disappointing(令人失望) to see so many university students indulging

themselves in computer games.

2.I find it useless / pointless(我觉得没用) trying to explain to him again ---He’s not

interested at all.

3.It is not possible / It is impossible(不可能) to write a book or make a film that

suits every individual .

4.They kept it a secret / kept it quiet(他们一直保密) that the President was dead .

5.It is still not clear(仍然不明朗) how far the globalization process will go .

While people are richer in material wealth, their spiritual life

did he realize how short-lived youth was青春

Given that she is only twelve,考虑到

It is on common interest that friendship is grounded,友谊的基础

however high social status that these material things have brought you,


Nothing is more disgusting than distorting the truth so shamelessly. 无耻的扭曲事实when all of a sudden the electricity was cut off突然断电了

the poorer performance the student may have学生的成绩会越差

not to quarrel but to negotiate dor an agreement不是为了吵架

that they have won most of the consumers in this region赢得客户

no country will get prosperous without opening p to the rest of the world