大学体验英语课文翻译及课后翻译(完整版)

第1课文

On our first "date" after our twin daughters were born, my husband and I went to see the movie Toy Story. We enjoyed it, but afterward my husband asked, "Where was the dad?" At first, it seemed petty to criticize an entertaining family movie because of one small point. The more I thought about it, however, the more glaring an omission it seemed. Not only was dad not around, he wasn't even mentioned — despite the fact that there was a baby in the family, so dad couldn't have been that long gone. It was as if the presence—or absence —of a father is a minor detail, not even requiring an explanation.

在我们的孪生女儿出生后的第一次"约会”时,我和丈夫一起去看了一部名为《玩具故事》的电影。我们很喜欢这部片子,但随后我丈夫问道:"父亲在哪儿呢?”起初我还认为因为一个小小的失误而批评一部很吸引人的家庭影片似乎是太偏狭了。可后来越想越觉得这一疏忽太严重了。父亲不仅没有出现,他甚至没有被提到——尽管家中有婴儿,说明他不可能离开太长时间。影片给人的感觉是,父亲出现与否似乎是个极次要的细节,甚至不需要做任何解释。

This is only one example of the media trend toward marginalizing fathers, which mirrors enormous social changes in the United States. David Blankenhorn, in his book Fatherless America, refers to this trend as the "unnecessary father" concept.

新闻媒体倾向于把父亲的边缘化,这只是一个例子,它反映了在美国发生的巨大的社会变化。大卫?布兰肯霍恩在《无父之国》一书中将这种倾向称之为"无需父亲”观念。

We are bombarded by stories about the struggles of working mothers (as opposed to non-working mothers, I suppose). Meanwhile, a high proportion of media stories about fathers focus on abusive husbands or deadbeat dads. It seems that the only time fathers merit attention is when they are criticized for not helping enough with the housework (a claim that I find dubious anyway, because the definition of "housework" rarely includes cleaning the gutters, changing the oil in the car or other jobs typically done by men) or when they die. When Mr. Blankenhorn surveyed fathers about the meaning of the term "good family man," many responded that it was a phrase they only heard at funerals.

职业母亲(我想这应是与无职业母亲相对而言的)奋斗的故事从媒体上无尽无休地轰击着我们。与此同时,媒体上绝大多数有关父亲的故事又集中表现暴力的丈夫或没出息的父亲。看起来似乎父亲惟一值得人们提及的时候是因为他们做家务太少而受到指责的时候(我怀疑这一说法的可靠性,因为"家务”的定义中很少包括打扫屋顶的雨水沟、给汽车换机油或其它一些典型地由男人们做的事),或者是在他们去世的时候。当布兰肯霍恩先生就"顾家的好男人”一词的词义对父亲们进行调查时,许多父亲都回答这一词语只有在葬礼上听到。

One exception to the "unnecessary father" syndrome is the glowing media attention that at-home dads have received. I do not mean to imply that at-home dads do not deserve support for making this commitment. I only mean to point out the double standard at work

when at-home dads are applauded while at-home mothers and breadwinner fathers are given little, if any, cultural recognition.

这种"无需父亲”综合症的一个例外是家庭全职父亲所受到的媒体的赞扬。我并非暗指这些家庭全职父亲作出的承诺不值得人们的支持,我只是想指出在实际生效的双重标准:家庭全职父亲受到人们的赞扬,而家庭全职母亲和养家活口的父亲,所得到文化上的认同却很少,甚至完全得不到。

The very language we use to discuss men's roles (i.e., deadbeat dads) shows a lack of appreciation for the majority of men who quietly yet proudly fulfill their family responsibilities. We almost never hear the term "working father," and it is rare that calls for more workplace flexibility are considered to be for men as much as for women. Our society acts as if family obligations are not as important to fathers as they are to mothers —as if career satisfaction is what a man's life is all about.

我们用来讨论父亲角色(即没出息的父亲)的话语本身就显示出人们对大多数男人默默无闻而自豪地履行对家庭承担的责任缺乏赏识。我们几乎从来没听到"职业父亲”这一说法,在人们呼吁应该考虑给予工作者在工作地点上更大的灵活性时,很少有人认为这种呼吁不但适用于女子,同样也适应于男子。我们这个社会表现出似乎家庭职责对父亲来说并不象对母亲那么重要——似乎事业上的满足就是男人生活的全部。

Even more insulting is the recent media trend of regarding at-home wives as "status symbols" —like an expensive car —flaunted by the supposedly few men who can afford such a luxury. The implication is that men with at-home wives have it easier than those whose wives work outside the home because they have the "luxury" of a full-time housekeeper. In reality, however, the men who are the sole wage earners for their families suffer a lot of stresses. The loss of a job —or even the threat of that happening —is obviously much more difficult when that job is the sole source of income for a family. By the same token, sole wage earners have less flexibility when it comes to leaving unsatisfying careers because of the loss of income such a job change entails. In addition, many husbands work overtime or second jobs to make more money needed for their families. For these men, it is the family that the job supports that makes it all worthwhile. It is the belief that having a mother at home is important to the children, which makes so many men gladly take on the burden of being a sole wage earner.

更让人感到侮辱的是最近媒体的这种倾向,即把家庭主妇看成是一种"地位的象征”——就像一辆名贵的汽车,只有据说少数男人才享受得起这种奢侈与豪华。这暗示家里有家庭主妇的男人比那些妻子在外工作的男人日子过得更舒适,因为他们拥有全职管家这种"奢侈品”。然而,实际上作为家庭惟一挣钱者的男人要承受很多压力。当他们的那份工作是家庭收入的惟一来源的时候,失业,或者甚至只不过是受到失业的威胁,对他们来说显然构成更大的困难。同样,家庭惟一的工资收入者在想辞去不太满意的工作时,其灵活程度也要小一些,因为这种工作变换会使他们失去收入。此外,为了给家庭挣更多的钱,许多丈夫超时工作或兼做第二职业。对于这些男人来说,正是这份工作所支撑的家庭,使得他们值得付出努力。很多男人相信母亲呆在家里对小孩十分重要,这种信

念使得他们乐意地担起家里惟一挣钱人的担子。

Today, there is widespread agreement among researchers that the absence of fathers from households causes serious problems for children and, consequently, for society at large. Yet, rather than holding up "ordinary" fathers as positive role models for the dads of tomorrow, too often society has thrown up its hands and decided that traditional fatherhood is at best obsolete and at worst dangerously reactionary. This has left many men questioning the value of their role as fathers.

目前,研究者们普遍认为家庭中没有父亲会对小孩——因此对整个社会——带来严重的问题。然而,我们这个社会并没有把"普通”父亲作为正面角色为未来的父亲树立榜样,相反地,却常常持放弃态度,认为传统的父道从最好的方面说是已经过时,从最坏的方面讲就是危险的反动。这使得许多男人对他们作为父亲的角色的价值提出疑问。

As a society, we need to realize that fathers are just as important to children as mothers are —not only for financial support, but for emotional support, education and discipline as well. It is not enough for us merely to recognize that fatherlessness is a problem —to stand beside the grave and mourn the loss of the "good family man" and then try to find someone to replace him (ask anyone who has lost a father to death if that is possible). We must acknowledge how we have devalued fatherhood and work to show men how necessary, how important they are in their children's lives.

作为一个社会,我们需要认识到对于孩子来说,父亲是与母亲同等重要的,不仅仅在经济支持上,而且在感情依靠、教育和纪律训导方面都是如此。我们仅仅意识到没有父亲是一个问题是不够的,也不能只是站在坟墓旁边哀悼"顾家好男人”的去世,随后又找一个人来替代他(请问一问已失去父亲的人,这是否可能)。我们必须承认我们是如何贬低了父道的价值,我们必须努力向男人们显示,他们在孩子们的生活中是多么不可缺少,多么重要。

Those fathers who strive to be good family men by being there every day to love and support their families —those unsung heroes —need our recognition and our thanks for all they do. Because they deserve it.

那些每天都在努力去爱和支撑他们的家庭,力求做一个顾家好男人的父亲,那些无名英雄,需要我们的承认,他们所付出的一切需要我们的感谢,因为他们值得我们的认同和感激。

课后翻译:

1.随着职务的提升,他担负的责任也更大了。(take on)

With his promotion ,he has taken on greater responsibilities.

2. 他感到他再没有必要对约翰承担这样的责任。(make a commitment)

He felt he did not have to make such a commitmentto John any more .

3. 闲暇时玛丽喜欢外出购物,与她相反,露茜却喜欢呆在家里看书。(as opposed to)

Mary likes go to shopping in her spare time ,as opposed to Lucy, who prefers to stay at home reading.

4. 充其量可以说他有抱负,用最糟糕的话来说,他是一个没有良心(conscience)或没有资格的权力追求者。(at best, at worst)

At best he's ambitious,at worst a power-seeker without conscience or qualifications .

5. 我们已尽全力说服他,但是却毫无进展。(strive,make no headway)

We have striven to the full to convince him,but we have made no headway.

第2课文

Why Digital Culture Is Good for You?

The news media, along with social and behavioral scientists, have recently sent out a multitude of warnings about the many dangers that await us out there in cyberspace. The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. In fact, in and of itself, the Web is fairly harmless. It has no special power to overtake its users and alter their very existence. Like the old tale that the vampire cannot harm you unless you invite it to cross your threshold, the Internet cannot corrupt without being invited. And, with the exception of children and the weak-willed, it cannot create what does not already exist...

最近,新闻媒体以及社会学家和行为学家们都发出大量警告指出:网络空间危险重重。其实,万维网与世界上其它任何事物一样并非天然地有害。它并非某种看不见摸不着的实体,能使危险降临进入它的每一个人。实际上,网络就其本身而言是相当无害的,它没有超越其使用者并改变他们的存在的特殊功能。正如古老的传说指出的一样,吸血鬼不请不会自入家门来伤害你,互联网也不会不请自来地使你堕落。除孩子和意志薄弱者外,它不可能造成本来就不存在的东西…

(1) Like alcohol, the Web simply magnifies what is already there: Experts are concerned that the masking that goes on online poses a danger for everyone who is a part of the Digital Culture. Before we know it, the experts tell us, we will all use fake identities, become fragmented, and will no longer be sure of just who we are. Wrong. The only people who feel compelled to mask, and otherwise misrepresent themselves online are the same people who are mysterious and unfrank in "real life”...the Net just give s them one more tool to practice their deceit.

(1)如同酒精的作用一样,网络仅仅是将已有的事物放大:

专家们担心,网上盛行的隐藏装假对参与数字文化的人来说是危险的。他们告诉我们,我们不知不觉地全都会使用假身份,一个个变得残缺不全面目全非,以至于连自己都不敢肯定自己究竟是谁。全错。只有那些在"现实生活”中表现得诡秘莫测,毫不坦诚的人,才感到被迫要在网上伪装自己并用其它方法提供虚假情况。网络只不过为他们增添了一种实施欺骗的工具。

As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. We know who these folks are in the "real world”. The Internet does not "cause”people to disguise as something they are not. As for the Digital Culture getting cheated by these dishonest folks, well, there are just as many "cues” online to decipher deception as there are in the "real world”. The competent WebHead can recognize many red flags given off by the online behavior of others. Oftentimes the intentions of fellow users is crystal clear, especially over time.

因为我们了解现实生活中的这些人,所以被这些人欺骗的可能性很小。因特网并不会"引起”人们去装扮成另一些人。至于数字文化中人被这些不诚实的家伙欺骗的问题,就如同"现实”生活中一样,网上同样有许多"信号”会揭露他们的骗术。有水平的网迷能识别在线人行为所发出的很多危险信号。尤其是经过一段时间之后,别的用户的意图常常是非常清楚的。When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying "too hard”or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clear. Likewise, just like in the "real world”, a host of other unacceptable tendencies can be readily recognized online. Narcissism (it’s all about "meeeee”), those p eople who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away.

有人试图在网上欺骗我们时,常常会明白无误地表现为自我矛盾,这是力求取信而过分涂抹,甚至说话虚假、令人难信的必然迹象。同样,与在"现实世界”中一样,许多其它令人讨厌的倾向在网上也都能很容易地识别出来。孤芳自赏(一切围绕"我我我”)在网络上也老远就会被发现,因为他们都是些只说别人反话或坏话的人,认为只有吹灭他人的蜡烛自己才能闪光的人。

(2) The Web can bring out the best in people: Gregarious, frank folks in "real life”usually carry these same traits over to their online life. Most are just as fun-loving online if not more so, as they are at a party, at work, or at the local bar. Though admittedly, some are not quite as much fun to be around without a stiff drink.

(2)网络能让人展现其最好的一面:

"现实生活”中爱好交往和直率的人在网上也会展现相同的个性。多数人网上和网下都一样爱找乐趣,即使不是有过之而无不及,也与他们平时在聚会上、在工作中和在当地的酒吧里一样喜欢寻找乐趣。然而无可否认,有些人没有烈性酒作伴,你和他们在一起就不会那么欢乐。

Shy folks have a "safer”environment online than in the "real world”and can learn to express themselves more freely on the Net (you’ve never seen anyone stutter on e-mail, have you?) allowing them to gain confidence and communication skills that can eventually spill over into other aspects of their lives. Helpful people in "real life”are often just as willing to come to someone’s assistance online as anywhere else.

害羞的人在网上比在"现实世界”中会得到更为"安全的”环境,并且在网上能学会更自由地表达自己(你从未见到过有人会在电子邮件上结结巴巴地说话,对吗),网络会使他们增强

信心,获得交际技能,而这些又最终会扩大到他们生活的其它方面。现实生活中喜欢帮助他人的人常常在网上也愿意尽力帮助他人。

(3) People are judged differently on the Web: On the Internet people are judged by their personality, beliefs and online actions, NOT by their physical appearance. This is good. It not only gives ugly folks an aid, but causes Beautiful People to have to say something worth listening to in order to get attention.

(3)网上评价人的方式不同:

在互联网上,对人的评价是看他们的个性、信念和网上行为,而不是看他们的外表长相。这很好,因为它不仅会给其貌不扬的人机会,也会使长相漂亮的人必须要说话值得一听才会引起别人注意。

(4) People open up more: Many people are opening up a whole lot more these days since they are not required to use their real name and provide their real identity in the Internet.

(4)人们更加坦率:

由于在互联网上不必使用真名并提供真实身份,许多人近日来更加坦诚,畅吐心曲。

(5) We’re connected: Members of the Digital Culture know full well that there is a wealth of important information and life-changing opportunities out there in cyberspace. The Web has opened doors for many of us that otherwise would never have been an option. Research possibilities and networking are just two such opportunities.

(5)我们联到一起了:

参与数字文化的人都非常了解,网上有大量重要信息,并能提供许多改变他们生活的机遇。网络为我们中间的许多人打开了许多大门,这种选择是他们在其它面所不能得到的。从事研究的可能和上网与人联系就是两个这样的机会。

(6) We Learn the Power of Words and to be Better Listeners: With no facial expressions, body language, or physical appearance to distract us, members of the Digital Culture have learned the power of words ... both their own, and others’. We know very well how a simple string of words can harm, hurt and offend, or how they can offer humor, help, support and encouragement. Most experienced members of the online culture have learned to become wordsmiths, carefully crafting the words they use to convey exactly what they mean so as not to be misunderstood.

(6)我们懂得了语言的威力并学会了更善于倾听:没有面部表情、身体语言或外表长相的干扰,数字文化的成员已学会了词语的威力…,包括他们自己的和他人的词语。我们透彻地懂得将词语简单地组合起来就能损害、伤害和冒犯他人,也可以表现幽默和提供帮助、支持和鼓励。多数富有经验的网络成员已经修炼成为语言大师,他们慎重地措词,准确地表达自己的意思以避免被人误解。

Many of us have also learned to become far better listeners thanks to the Internet. Not only do we choose our words more carefully but we (especially those who communicate via email as opposed to chat rooms) are forced to wait until the other person finishes before we can speak or

respond.

由于互联网的缘故,我们中的许多人已经学会更好地倾听。我们不但要更慎重地斟词酌句,我们(尤其是那些通过电子邮件而不是聊天室交流的人)还必须等待,等待他人结束后我们才能说话或者回答。

1. 要是他适合当校长,那么哪个学生都可以当。(no more...than)

He is no more fit to be a headmaster than any schoolboy would be.

2. 至于她的父亲,她不敢肯定是否会接收她和她的小孩。(as for)

As for her father, she is not sure whether he will accept her and her baby.

3. 晚睡会损害健康而早睡早起有益于健康。(undermine)

Staying up late will undermine one's health while going to bed early and getting up early will benefit it.

4. 大使亲自向总理转达了总统的问候。(convey)

The ambassador personally conveyed the president's message to the premier.

5. 这个女孩决定敞开心扉,把她看见的一切都告诉警方。(open up)

The girl decided to open up and tell the police what she had seen.

第3课文

1)"If it doesn’t have a copyright notice, it’s not copyrighted.” This was true in the past, but today almost all major nations follow the Berne copyright convention. For example, in the USA, almost everything created privately and originally after April 1, 1989 is copyrighted and protected whether it has a notice or not. The default you should assume for other people’s works is that they are copyrighted and may not be copied unless you know otherwise. There are some old works that lost protection without notice, but frankly you should not risk it unless you know for sure.

1)如果没有版权标识,就不会受到版权保护。这在过去是事实,但现在情况就有所不同了,几乎所有大国邮遵循伯尔尼版权协定,比如,在美国,自1989年4月1日后,几乎所有个人创作以及原创的作品,不管它是否有版权标识,都受到版权保护。大家默认的是他人的作品已受到版权保护,不能随意复制,除非你能确信它不受版权保护:有些年代久远的作品如果没有标识,就不受到版权保护,但坦白地说如果这一点不能肯定,你就不应冒这个风险。

2) "If I don’t charge for it, it’s not a violation.”False. Whether you charge can affect the damages awarded in court, but that’s the main difference under the law. It’s still a violation if you give it away –and there can still be serious damages if you hurt the commercial value of the property. There is an exception for personal copying of music, which is not a violation, though courts seem to have s aid that doesn’t include wide-scale anonymous personal copying as Napster. If the work has no commercial value, the violation is mostly technical and is unlikely to result in legal action.

2)如果我没有为此收费,就不算侵权。错。你是否收费可能对法庭上判罚金的额度有所

影响,但那只是在这一法律条文下量刑的主要区别。即使你免费分发他人的作品,仍然是侵权。而且如果危及到他人财产的商业价值,仍然会被罚以大额赔偿金。个人的音乐拷贝是唯一的例外,不被列入侵权行为。不过法庭上似乎有这种说法,个人拷贝不包括像纳帕斯特那样的大规模匿名复制行为。如果该作品没有向业价值,侵权多是技术性的,不会受到起诉。

3) "If it’s posted to Usenet it’s in the public domain.”False. Nothing modern is in the public domain anymore unless the owner explicitly puts it in the public domain. Explicitly, as you have a note from the author/owner saying, "I grant this to the pub lic domain.”

3)如果已被发送到世界性的新闻组网络系统(Usenet)的材料,那就不受版权限制。错。现代社会里任何东西都要受到版权限制,除非所有者明确表示它不受版权限制。要确定它是否受到版权限制,必须得要作者/所有者的书面证明:"我准予某某不受版权限制。”

4) "My posting was just fair use!”The "fair use”exemption to (U.S.) copyright law was created to allow things such as commentary, parody, news reporting, research and education about copyrighted works without the permission of the author. That’s important so that copyright law doesn’t block your freedom to express your own works. Intent and damage to the commercial value of the work are important considerations. Are you reproducing an article from the New York Times because you couldn’t f ind time to write your own story, or didn’t want your readers to have to pay for the New York Times web site? They aren’t "fair use”. Fair use is usually a short excerpt.

4)我的帖子只是合理使用。"合理使用”可以免除版权限制,它的设立使人们可以使用某些作品,而不必经过作者的同意,这些作品包括解说词、模仿诗文、新闻报道以及那些对受版权保护的著作的研究和宣传的作品。这一规定非常重要,有了这一规定版权法就不会成为妨碍你自由地发表作品的绊脚石。但涉及到故意侵权和损害具有商业价值的作品时就要慎重考虑了。你做过这样的事吗?由于你自己没有时间写文章,或是为了让你的读者免受给《纽约时报》网站缴费之累,于是就从《纽约时报》上复制一篇。这种行为不是"合理使用”。合理使用通常只是一条简短的摘录。

5) "If you don’t defend your copyright you lose it.”–"Somebody has that name copyrighted!”False. Copyright is effectively never lost these days, unless explicitly given away. You also can’t "copyright a name”or anything short like that, such as almost all titles. You may be thinking of trademarks, which apply to names, and can be weakened or lost if not defended. Like an "Apple” computer. Apple Computer "owns” that word applied to computers, even though it is also an ordinary word. Apple Records owns it when applied to music. Neither owns the word on its own, only in context, and owning a mark doesn’t mean complete control.

5)如果你不保护好你的版权你就会失去它——有人就可以取

得那个名字的版权。错。现在,版权是一直有效的,除非它明确被出让。你也不能取得某个名字或类似的缩略词的版权,几乎所有标题本身都不可以有版权。你或许会设想某些与名字有关的商标,如果不加以保护是否会削弱或者丧失。例如"苹果”电脑,虽然苹果只是一个普通的单词,但只有用于电脑时,苹果电脑才拥有它。而苹果唱片则只有用于音乐时才拥有它。没有特定的上下义,两者都不能单独拥有这个单词的版权保护,

因此拥有一个标记并不意味着拥有完全的支配权。

6)"If I make up my own stories, but base them on another work, my new work belongs to me.”False. U.S. Copyright law is quite explicit that the making of what are called "derivative works”–works based on or derived from another copyrighted work –is the exclusive province of the owner of the original work. This is true even though the making of these new works is a highly creative process. If you write a story using settings or characters from somebody else’s work, you need that author’s permission.

6)如果基于另外一部作品,我自己编撰了一个故事,那么这部新作品就属于我所拥有。错。美国的版权法十分明确地指出那些所谓"派生作品”的编撰,即以另一部受版权保护的作品为素材或从中演纤出来的作品,是原著作者独有的,即使那些新作品的编撰经过高度创作加工,原著的所有权是不能改变的。因此如果你撰写的故事要用他人作品中的背景或人物。你就需要征得作者的同意。

7)"They can’t get me,defendants in court have powerful rights!” Copyright law is mostly civil law. If you violate copyright you would not be charged with a crime, but usually get sued.

7)他们不可能把我怎么样,在法庭上被告也有特权。版权法主要是民事法。如果你违反了版权法,你不会以—个罪犯的名义遭到起诉,但通常会受到民事诉讼。

8) "Oh, so copyright violation isn’t a crime or anything?”Actually, recently in the USA commercial copyrightviolation involving more than 10 copies and value over $2500 was made a felony. So watch out. On the other hand, this is a fairly new, untested statute. In one c ase an operator of a pirate BBS that didn’t charge was acquitted because he didn’t charge, but congress amended the law to cover that.

8)因而版权侵犯不能算作犯罪?事实上,美国法律最新规定,复制超过10册,价值超过2 500美元的商业版权侵犯就会被定为重罪。因此,你得小心。不过,这是一条相当新的法规,还未在实际案例中得到应用。曾有这样一个案例:—个未收费的BBS盗版者被宣告无罪,就因为他没有收费。在此之后,国会修正了过去的法规以堵塞这个漏洞。

9) "It doesn’t hurt anybody –in fact it’s free advertising.”It’s up to the owners to decide if they want the free ads or not. If they want them, they will be sure to contact you. Don’t rationalize whether it hurts the owners or not, ask them. Usually that’s not too hard to do. Even if you can’t think of how the author or owner gets hurt, think about the fact that piracy on the net hurts everybody who wants a chance to use this wonderful new technology to do more than read other people’s flamewars.

9)它不会伤害任何人,事实上这是免费广告。是否需要免费的广告,这应由所有者来决定。如果他们需要,他们肯定会与你联系。不要凭空设想免费广告是否会伤害业主,最好问问他们。通常这样做并非太难。即使你不能想像作者或作品的所有者会受到怎样的伤害,只要想想这个事实,就会一日了然:网上盗版作品无疑对每一个使用者都会造成伤害,人们使用网络这种奇妙的新技术,希望能干番事业,决非仅仅为了阅读他人在网

上的论战。

10) "They e-mailed me a copy, so I can post it.”To have a copy is not to have the copyright. All the E-mail you write is copyrighted. However, E-mail is not unless previously agreed. So you can certainly report on what E-mail you are sent, and reveal what it says. You can even quote parts of it to demonstrate. Frankly, somebody who sues over an ordinary message would almost surely get no damages, because the message has no commercial value, but if you want to stay strictly in the law, you should ask first. On the other hand, d on’t go nuts if somebody posts E-mail you sent them. If it was an ordinary non-secret personal letter of minimal commercial value with no copyright notice (like 99.9% of all E-mail), you probably won’t get any damages if you sue them.

10)他们通过电子邮件发给我—个副本,所以我可以将它张贴出去。有一个副本并不意味拥有版权。你自己写的所有的电子邮件都是有版权的。然而除非事先行约定,电子邮件不受版权保护。所以收到别人给你发送的邮件你当然可以报道和公开它的内容。你甚至可以进行部分引有。坦率地说,由于普通信件没什么商业价值,那些对此提起诉讼的人通常是不会得到赔偿金的,但如果你想要在法律上站得住脚,最好事先征得邮件发送人的同意。当然,如果有人把你发的邮件张贴出来,也不必大发雷霆。如果是普通的、没有秘密可言的私人信件,是不会有什么商业价值和版权标识意义的(像99.9%的电子邮件那样),即使提起诉讼,也不会得到任何赔偿金的。

1. 他理个发就要收500元,简直不可思议。(charge)

It is simply unbelievable for him to charge 500 dollars for a haircut.

2. 人民赋予你特权,你就应该全心全意为人民服务。(grant)

People grant you the privilege, so you should serve the people wholeheartedly.

3. 天气预报很重要,依据它我们才能决定什么时候出航。(so that)

The weather forecast is very important so that we can decide when to go to sea.

4. 炮声打破了往常周日早晨的宁静,人们强烈预感到战争就要来临。(violate)

The sound of guns violated the usual calm of Sunday morning, and people had a strong feeling that the war was coming.

5. 即使你每分钟看3页,到本周末你无论如何也看不完这本书。(even though)

Even though you read three pages per minute, you will by no means finish the book by the end of this weekend.

第4课文

The study of literature is not only civilized and civilizing —encompassing, as it does, philosophy, religion, the history of events and the history of ideas —but popular and practical. One-sixth of all those who receive bachelor’s degrees from the College of Arts and Sciences are English majors. These graduates qualify for a surprising range of jobs. Their experience puts the lie to the popular superstition that English majors must choose between journalism and teaching: in fact, English majors also receive excellent preparation for future careers in law, medicine, business, and government service.

文学的研究——包含对哲学、宗教、历史事件的发展和观念由来的研究,不仅是文明的,并且有教化作用,而且是流行的和实际的。在所有从文理学院毕业并获得学士学位的人中,有六分之一的人主修英语。让人惊异的是,这些毕业生能胜任范围相当广泛的工作。他们的经验表明,这种广泛流行的偏见是错误的,即英语专业的学生只能从事新闻或教学工作:事实上,主修英语的学生也为未来从事法律、医学、商业和公职等职业做了相当好的准备。

Undergraduates looking forward to law school or medical school are often advised to follow a strict regimen of courses considered directly relevant to their career choices. Future law-school students are advised to take courses in political science, history, accounting, business administration —even human anatomy, and marriage and family life. Future medical school students are steered into multiple science courses —actually far more science courses than they need for entrance into medical school. Surprisingly, many law schools —and medical schools indicate that such specialized preparation is not only unnecessary, but undesirable. There are no "Pre-law” courses: the best preparation for law school — and for the practice of law — is that preparation which makes a student capable of critical thinking; of clear, logical self-expression; of sensitive analysis of the motives, the actions, and the thoughts of other human beings. These are skills which the study of English is designed to teach.

有人时常劝告期望上法学院或医学院的大学生要学习与他们的择业有直接联系的严格制定的课程。有人还建议未来法学院的学生应该选修政治、历史、会计、商业管理,甚至人体解剖学、婚姻和家庭生活等课程。未来医学院的学生被引导去学习多种理科课程,实际上,这些课程比他们考入医学院所需要的理科课程要多得多。令人惊讶的是,许多法学院和医学院却指出,如此专门化的准备不但没有必要,而且并不可取。没有什么"法律预科”课程:上法学院和从事法律行业的最好的准备是培养学生能够进行批判性的思考;能够进行清晰的合乎逻辑的自我表述;能够对他人的动机、行动和想法进行敏锐的分析。这些技能也正是英语专业要教给学生掌握的技能。

Entrance into law school, moreover, generally requires a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution, a minimum grade point average, and an acceptable score on The Law School Admission Test (LSAT). This test has three parts. The first evaluates skills in reading comprehension, in figure classification, and in the evaluation of written material. The second part of the test evaluates control of English grammar and usage, ability to organize written materials, and competence to edit. The third part evalu ates the student’s general knowledge of literature, art, music, and the natural and social sciences. Clearly an undergraduate major in English is strong preparation for the L.S.A.T.

此外,要进入法学院就读,通常需要具有合格院校颁发的学士学位,还需要拿到最低限度的各课平均积分点,并和在法学院录取考试(L.S.A.T.)中取得一个通得过的分数。这项测试包括三个部份:首先是测试阅读理解、图型分类和书面材料评估等能力。测试的第二个部份是考核对英语语法和词汇用法的掌握能力,组织书面材料的能力和文字编辑的能力。第三个部份是检测学生的文学、艺术、音乐、自然科学和社会科学的一般知识。显而易见,主修英语的学生参加法学院录取考试会得心应手。

As for medical schools, the main requirement for admission is only thirty-two hours of science courses. This requirement is certainly no impediment to a major in English. Moreover many medical schools require a minimum score on the Medical College Admission Test,

another test which offers an advantage to the well-rounded liberal arts student. The M.C.A.T. evaluates four areas of competence: skill with synonyms, s, and word association; knowledge of basic mathematics from fractions through solid geometry; general knowledge of literature, philosophy, psychology, music, art, and the social sciences; and familiarity with those fundamentals of biology, chemistry, and physics taught in high school and in introductory college courses. The English major with a solid, basic grounding in science is well prepared for this test and for medical school, where his or her skills in reading, analysis, interpretation, and precise communication will equip him or her to excel. The study and practice of medicine can only benefit from the insights into human behavior provided by the study of literature.

至于医学院,入学要求主要的一条只是修满32个学时的理科课程。这一要求对主修英语的学生来说肯定不成问题。另外,许多医学院校要求学生必须在医学院入学考试中取得规定的最低分,这一测试对全面发展的文科学生来说又十分有利。医学院入学考试检测四方面的能力:同义词、反义词和词语联想能力;从分数到立体几何学的基本数学知识;文学、哲学、心理学、音乐、艺术和社会科学的常识;以及熟悉中学和大学初始阶段教过的生物学、化学和物理学基本原理的程度。理科基础扎实的主修英语学生完全有能力参加这一考试和医学院入学考试,他们的阅读、分析、阐述和准确交流的能力使他们更胜一筹。学医和行医只会从对人的行为的洞察中受益无穷,而这种洞察却是文学研究才能提供的。

Such insights are obviously also valuable to the student who plans a career in commerce. Such students should consider the advantages of an English major with an emphasis in business: this program is designed to provide a liberal education, as well as to direct preparation for a business career. The need for such a program is clear: graduates with merely technical qualifications are finding jobs in business, but often failing to hold them. Both the Wall Street Journal and the Journal of College Placement have reported that increasing numbers of graduates from reputable business schools find themselves drifting from one job or firm to another, unable to hold a position for longer than twelve months. Employers complain that these apparently promising young men and women are simply not competent communicators: because they are not sufficiently literate, they cannot absorb managerial training; they cannot make effective oral presentations; they cannot report progress or problems in their writing; they cannot direct other workers. Skill in analysis and communication is the essence of management.

很明显,如此的洞察力对计划以经商为业的学生来说也是很有价值的。这样的学生应该考虑的是,挑选主修对商科有侧重的英语课程是有优势的:这种课程的目的在于在提供文科教育的同时,也为从商职业做准备。对这种教育计划的需求是显而易见的:只有技术性资格的毕业生能找到从商工作,但却经常难以居其位。《华尔街杂志》)和《大学生就业杂志》都有报道,说越来越多的著名商学院的毕业生发现他们自己经常从一种工作或一家公司跳槽到另一个工作或另一家公司,在一个工作岗位上干不了十二个月。雇主们抱怨说,这些表面上年轻有为的男女们根本不会有效地交流,因为他们的文字能力不够强;他们不能够从管理人员培训中学到东西;他们不能够进行有效的口头表达;他们不能用书面形式报告他们的工作进展或问题;他们不能够指导其他工作人员。然而,分析和交流的技能却是管理的最根本的需要。

Consequently the English major with an emphasis in business is particularly well prepared for a future in business administration. Nearly four hundred companies in fields ranging from banking and insurance to communications to manufacturing were asked whether they hired college graduates with degrees in English, even when those graduates lacked special training in the industry: Eighty-five percent of the companies said that they did. College graduates with degrees in English are working successfully in marketing, in systems engineering, in personnel management, in sales, in programming, in project design, and in labor relations.

因此,偏重商业经营管理的主攻英语的学生为未来从事商业管理作好了充分准备。对涉及从银行、保险到通信乃至制造业等众多领域的将近400家公司进行了有关调查,针对是否聘用具有英语学位文凭的毕业生,甚至没有受过行业领域的专门培训的毕业生这一问题,百分之八十五的公司说他们聘用过。拥有英语学位文凭的大学毕业生在营销、系统工程、人事管理、销售、编程、项目设计和劳资关系等领域都工作得十分出色。

English majors are also at work in the thousand occupations provided by government at all levels. Consider, for example, the federal government —by a very wide margin, America’s biggest employer. In organizations ranging from the Marine Corps to the Bureau of Mines, from the Commerce Department to the National Park Service, the federal government employs a work force of nearly three million men and women. English majors may qualify for many of these jobs. Recently, 51 federal agencies were asked the same question: whether they hired college graduates with English degrees but without special job training, 88 percent of these federal employers said yes. The list of federal positions for which English majors may qualify ranges from Claims Examiner to Foreign Service Officer to Highway Safety Management Specialist. Again, those who seek positions of high reward and responsibility may be asked to take a test —the federal government uses the Professional and Administrative Career Examination, or P.A.C.E., to evaluate applicants for about 10 000 jobs each year —and again, the test focuses on language skills: comprehension, analysis, interpretation, the ability to see logical relationships between ideas, and the ability to solve problems expressed in words. Not surprisingly, competent English majors often receive very high scores on the P.A.C.E.

主修英语的学生也正在各级政府提供的上千种岗位上工作。就拿可以算得是美国最大的雇主的联邦政府来说吧。从海军陆战队到矿务局,从商业部到国家公园服务处,联邦政府各种机构雇佣的劳动大军近三百万人。主修英语的学生适合做其中的许多工作。最近,向51个联邦政府机构调查了同一个问题:是否聘用有英语学位文凭而却没有受过专门行业训练的大学毕业生,88%的这些联邦政府单位的回答是肯定的。主修英语的毕业生能胜任联邦政府的一系列工作,从索赔审议到外交官到公路安全管理专家等等。再说,那些要求高薪高位的人可能还需要参加一种考试,也就是说,联邦政府每年都要举行"业务和管理职业考试”对大约10 000种工作岗位的求职者进行考核,而测试的焦点仍然侧重语言技能:理解、分析、阐述、理解概念间逻辑关系的能力,以及解决用文字表述问题的能力。毫不奇怪,主修英语的学生时常在这一考试中获得高分。

In short, a major in English is neither restricting nor impractical: the study of English is excellent preparation for professional life.

简而言之,英语的课程既无局限性又很实用:学习英语是对职业生涯的绝好准备。

1. 我妹妹虽然年龄还小,可是她对将要从事的职业已胸有成竹。(as)

Young as my sister is, she already knows for sure what career she is going to follow.

2. 我舅舅今天下午要来看我们,他的照片我昨天给你看过。(whose)

My uncle, whose photo I showed you yesterday, will come to see us this afternoon.

3. 正是由于英语这门语言的功能非常灵活,才使得英语成为一种全球性的语言。(It is ...that...)

It is because of its very functional flexibility that makes English become a global language.

4. 我们很高兴代表我们研究中心向你们海外客人致意。(in the name of)

In the name of our research center we are very glad to pass on our greetings to you,our overseas guests.

5. 这台新发动机比那些旧的要好,因为它耗费的燃料少得多。(superior)

This new engine is superior to the old ones in that it consumes much less fuel.

第5课文

As for the moral advantage in business, of all places, everyone knows a modicum of ethics is called for in any business — you can't cheat your customers forever and get away with it. But wouldn't it be more advantageous if you actually could get away with it? Profits would soar out of sight! Then you would really have an advantage, or so the thinking might go.

道德利益,它存在于商业中,以及所有其他领域里。大家都知道各行都需要有一点伦理道德—你不能永远欺骗顾客并侥幸逃脱。但是如果你果真能侥幸逃脱,那就算你的幸运——利润回会滚滚而来!这可能就是你所指望的好处,为此你不愿放弃自己的指望。

The notion of seeking the moral advantage is a new way of thinking about ethics and virtue in business, an approach that does not accept the need for trade-offs between ambition and conscience. Far from obstructing the drive for success, a sense of moral purpose can help individuals and companies achieve at the highest —and most profitable —levels.

寻求道德利益的概念是商界思考伦理道德的新途径,这种新途径不是仅仅用于调节奢望与良知之间的冲突。如果人们具有道德目标意识不仅不会削弱他们获得成功的动力,反而能帮助他们个人和公司获得最大成功,即最高利润。

Cynicism dominates our attitudes about what it takes to succeed in business. A common way of thinking about morality in business goes something like this:

人们对商业成功总是持有愤世嫉俗的态度。大家对商业道德的理解大致如下:

Ethical conduct is an unpleasant medicine that society forces down business people's throats to protect the public interest from business avarice.

道德行为是社会为了保护公众利益不受商业欺诈而强迫商界咽下的一服苦药。

Morality gets in the way of the cold, hard actions truly ambitious Skepticism people must take to reach their goals.

道德会妨碍利欲熏心的人们为达到目的而采取的冷酷无情的行为。

Moneymaking is inevitably tainted by greed, deceit, and exploitation.

赚钱就不可避免地要被贪婪、欺诈和盘剥的行为所玷污。

The quest for profits stands in opposition to everything that is moral, fair, decent, and charitable.

追求利润与任何道德、公平、体面和仁慈的事情是背道而驰的。

Skepticism about moneymaking goes back a long way. The Bible warns that it's harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. "Behind every great fortune," wrote French novelist Honoréde Balzac in the 1800s, "lies a great crime." British author G. K. Chesterton sounded the same theme in the early 20th century, noting that a businessman "is the only man who is forever apologizing for his occupation."

对赚钱持怀疑的态度由来已久。圣经警告说,一个有钱人要进入天堂比让一头骆驼钻进针眼还要难。十九世纪法国小说家巴尔扎克(Honoréde Balzac)写道:"在每一笔巨大财富背后都隐藏着巨大的罪恶。”英国作家切斯特顿在20世纪初也论述过同样的主题,指出商人是"唯一要对其职业永远说抱歉的人。”

The contemporary media often characterize business as nothing more than a self-serving exercise in greed, carried out in as corrupt and ruthless a manner as possible. In television and movies, moneymaking in business is tainted by avarice, exploitation, or downright villainy. The unflattering portrayals have become even more pointed over time. In 1969, the businessman in Philip Roth's Goodbye, Columbus advises the story's protagonist, "To get by in business, you've got to be a bit of a thief." He seems like a gently wise, figure compared with Wall Street's 1980s icon, Gordon Gekko, whose immortal words were "Greed is good."

现代媒体常常把商业定义为一种既自私又贪婪的运作,过程是极其腐败和冷酷的。在电视和电影中,商业挣钱充满了贪婪、盘剥和尔虞我诈。这些逼真的描绘日后甚至变得更加尖刻。1969年,在非利普·萝斯的《再见》一剧中的商人哥伦布忠告剧中主人公时说,"要想在商界站住脚,你就得多少有点做贼的本领”。华尔街20世纪80年代的偶像哥登·节科有一句经典名句:"贪婪为好”,与他相比,哥伦布看起来就象一个慈祥而明智的父亲形象。

Yet some important observers of business see things differently. Widely read gurus such as Stephen Covey and Tom Peters point to the practical utility of moral virtues such as compassion, responsibility, fairness, and honesty. They suggest that virtue is an essential ingredient in the recipe for success, and that moral standards are not merely commendable choices but necessary components of a thriving business career. This is a frequent theme in commencement addresses and other personal testimonials: Virtuous behavior advances a career in the long run by building trust and reputation, whereas ethical shortcomings eventually derail careers. The humorist Dorothy Parker captured this idea in one of her signature quips: "Time wounds all heels.

然而一些重要的商界观察家对此又有不同的看法。如象颇受读者喜爱的斯帝夫科·威和汤姆·皮特斯等著名权威,他们都指出了怜悯、责任、公平和诚实等道德操守的实际作用,如他们认为道德是成功秘诀中的首要组成成分,道德标准不仅是值得称赞的选择,也是商业兴旺的必要动力。这些言词是毕业典礼致词和其他个人德行证明书中一个常有的主题:从长远来看,道德高尚的行为有助于建立信任和信誉,从而推动事业的发展,相反,伦理道德的瑕疵最终会导致事业的败落。幽默家多萝斯帕克在她所题写的警句中抓住了这一观点:"时间会弄伤所有的脚后跟。”

So who's right --- those who believe that morality and business are mutually exclusive, or those who believe they reinforce one another? Do nice guys finish last, or are those who advocate doing well by doing good the real winners? Is the business world a group of thievery or a haven for upstanding citizens?

那么谁的观点是正确的呢?是主张道德和商业水火不容呢,还是主张道德和商业相辅相成呢?是否好人最终完蛋,那些主张做好事求成功的人是最终的赢家?商界到底是一个贼窝,还是诚实人的天堂?

With colleagues Howard Gardner at Harvard University and MihalyCsikszentmihalyi at Claremont Graduate University, I've examined this question by interviewing 40 top business leaders, such as McDonald's CEO Jack Greenberg and the late Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, between 1998 and 2000 as part of our joint "Project on Good Work." We found that a strong sense of moral purpose not only promotes a business career but also provides a telling advantage in the quest to build a thriving enterprise. In fact, a sense of moral purpose stands at the center of all successful business innovations. Far from being a constraining force that merely keeps people honest and out of trouble, morality creates a fertile source of business motivation, inspiration, and innovation.

我与哈福大学的霍华德·加德纳和克来蒙研究生院的米哈利·斯克珍特米哈利两位同行在一起,于1998年到2000年期间,通过采访40位高层商界领导,如麦当劳的总裁杰克·格林伯格和已仙逝的华盛顿邮报发行人凯斯琳·格雷厄姆等,我研究了这个问题,这是我们共同合作的"良好工作项目”的一个部分。我们发现一种强烈的道德追求意识不仅会促进商业的发展,而且会为建立繁荣的产业提供强大的优势。事实上,道德追求意识是商业成功的核心。道德不仅是只能让人保持诚实、摆脱困境的约束力量,更为商业欲望、激情和创新创造了肥沃的土壤。

This is different from the view of morality you'll encounter in a typical business-ethics course. It's so different that I now speak about moralities, in the plural, when discussing the role of virtue and ethics in business. Morality in business has three distinct faces including moral warning,charitable feeling and moral initiatives, each playing its own special role in ensuring business success.

这与你在典型的商业伦理课上会遇到的道德观大相径庭。这些差异是如此之大,因此在讨论伦理道德在商业中的作用时,我现在要说道德涉及的不是一个方面。商业道德有三个清晰的侧面,每一个侧面在确保商业成功中都在起着特有的作用。

1.他们登上的飞机起飞后立刻就消失了。(soar, out of sight)

The airplane they boarded soared out of sight as soon as it took off.

2. 在会上,保守派反对提出的改革建议。(in opposition to)

At the meeting, the two sides had a very hot debate. The reformers put forward many reforming measures, but conservatives were in opposition to the proposed changes.

3. 从长远看,我们必须学习更多的科技知识,除了我们的专业课程之外,懂得计算机、英语和驾驶是我们工作中必不可少的。(in a long run)

In the long run, we should learn more about science and technology. Besides the major subject, the knowledge of computers, English and driving is necessary in our work.

4. 为练成完美的体型,她每周做四次健身操。(in quest)

She does gymnastic exercises four times a week in quest to achieve the perfect body.

5.每天早晨,一些老人在公园里一边锻炼身体一边聊天。(at the same time)

Every the morning in the park some old people are doing physical exercises there, chatting with each other.

第6课文

Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reaches the depths of despair when they lose. Scientific studies show the love affair with a team may be as emotionally intense as the real thing, and that team clashes have gladiatorial power.

当球队取胜时,铁杆球迷会兴奋到极点;而当球队失败时,又会极度低迷。科学研究发现,对一支球队的恋情可能在情感上与真正恋爱一样强烈,而且球队之间的碰撞具有角斗士般的影响力量。

What's going on? Why do fervent fans have hormonal surges and other psychological changes while watching games? Why does fans' self-esteem soar with victory and plummet in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards? Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? Is avidly rooting for a team good or bad for your health? You may find the answers surprising.

究竟是怎么回事?为什么热情的球迷在观看比赛的时候会发生荷尔蒙的起伏以及其他的心理变化?为什么球迷的自尊心随着胜利而高涨,随着失败而低落,有时会影响到他们以后很长时间的生活?人们为什么会对球队形成如此深厚的情结?况且,如此痴心地全力支持一支球队于你的健康是好还是坏?你可能会发现答案却令人吃惊。

THE FAN'S PERSONALITY

Psychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team,2 but a study suggests the opposite. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation than people who never watch Match Of The Day. Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond. It's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time when warriors fighting to protect their tribes were the true representatives of their race. In modern times, so the theory goes, professional sportsmen are warriors of a city or country fighting a stylized war waged on a football pitch.

球迷的性格

心理学家经常将铁杆球迷描绘成寂寞而又不适应环境的人,他们通过对一只球队的认同来寻求自我。但一项研究却得出了相反的结论。这项研究显示,与那些从来不看当天比赛的人们相比,足球迷们所经受的沮丧和麻木要小。铁杆球迷还会显示与球队狂热的牢不可破的联系。这种球迷心理的根源也许可以追朔到原始时期。那时,为保护他们部落而战的武士是他们种族的真正的代表。在现代道理依然如此,职业运动员是一个城市或国家的武士,打的是足球场上发动的遵守规则的战争。

IT'S WAR OUT THERE

Some confrontations on the pitch are gladiatorial. In this respect, our sports heroes are our gladiators. A football match, especially between rival teams, isn't some light-hearted display of athletic prowess. The self is emotionally involved in the outcome because whoever you're rooting for represents YOU. So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. It could even be that these emotions have fueled the explosion in the popularity of sports over the past 20 years.一场战争

球场上的对抗是激烈的。从这方面看,我们的体育英雄就是我们的斗士。足球比赛,尤其是在竞争对手之间,并不是一种轻松的运动技艺的展现。你自身会在情感上介入比赛的结果,因为你所全力支持的球队代表着你。所以,职业足球选手似乎能对一些球迷再现当年部落战争对他们的祖先所产生的那种紧张情绪。甚至可以说,正是这种情绪在过去的20年中,加速了人们迷恋体育运动的狂热化。

STATUS BY PROXY

So, through football matches, it becomes possible to gain respect from your rivals, albeit vicariously . This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. Or, if you like, by your connection to individual footballers for their skill, such as midfielder David Beckham, winger Ryan Giggs, and striker Thierry Henry.

代理人身分

因此,通过足球比赛,你有可能会得到你的对手的尊重,虽然只是间接的感受。这就意味着,你可能受到十分敬重,但这不是因为你自己的成就,而是因为你与获胜的球队有联系。再者,如果你愿意,你还可以将自己与某个球技精湛的足球队员相联系,如中场队员大卫?贝克汉姆,边锋来恩?吉格斯,以及前锋铁瑞?亨利等。

The connection, however, can be fickle. Bragging sports fans tend to claim credit for their team's success, saying "we won" to describe a victory, but distance themselves from a team's failure, saying "they lost" describing a defeat.

当然,那种关联可能是不牢固的。爱炫耀的体育迷在称赞他们球队的胜利时总爱说"我们赢了”,但是却与自己球队的失败保持距离,而说"他们输了”。

LOYAL TO THE END

A raft of studies has found that "highly-identified" fans —both men and women —are unlikely to abandon a team when it's doing badly. Anyone who's read Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby knows that this is true of the ardent Arsenal fan. Not only that, they tend to blame

their team's failures on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenal's mistakes or the other team's skill. It's not surprising that these avid fans get more psychologically aroused at games and spend more money on tickets and merchandise.

善始善终

大量研究发现,那些"高度投入”的球迷——无论男女——不大可能在球队表现不佳时背离球队。凡读过尼克?霍恩比的《极度兴奋》的人都知道,阿森纳的足球迷正是如此。不仅如此,他们还把他们球队的失利归咎于裁判不公或球运不佳,而不说阿森纳足球队的差错或其对手的技艺。因此,这些狂热的球迷对比赛高度亢奋并花费更多的金钱购买球票和俱乐部的商品,这一点就不足为怪了。

IS TESTOSTERONE A FACTOR?

Testosterone levels in male fans rise markedly after a victory but drop just as sharply after a defeat. Apparently the same pattern has been documented in male animals who fight over a female. Biologists think that the human animal may have evolved this way to end conflicts quickly. If so, it provides an interesting biological explanation of football hooliganism after big matches. Science backs up this theory. Testosterone levels were measured in 21 Italian and Brazilian men in Atlanta before and after Brazil's victory over Italy in soccer's 1994 World Cup. The Brazilians' testosterone rose 28 per cent on average, while the Italians' levels dropped 27 per cent.

睾丸激素有影响吗?

球队获胜后男性球迷的睾丸激素含量会显著上升,而在失利后显著下降。这种特性在为争夺雌性而战的雄性动物身上也得到了验证。生物学家认为,人类可能已演化了这一方法来尽快结束冲突。如果是这样,它就为大赛后的足球流氓行为提供了一个有趣的生物学解释。科学验证了这一理论。在1994年的亚特兰大世界杯赛中,分别在巴西队战胜意大利队之前和之后对21名意大利人和巴西人的睾丸激素含量进行了测试。结果,赛后巴西人的睾丸激素上升了28%,而意大利人的睾丸激素却下降了27%。

CAN BEING A FAN DAMAGE YOUR HEALTH?

Yes, it can. Indeed it can be fatal. The tension felt by football fans during penalty shoot-outs can trigger heart attacks and strokes in male spectators. On the day Holland lost to France in Euro 96, deaths there from heart attacks and strokes rose by 50 per cent.

作为球迷会损害健康吗?

是的,甚至是致命的。在罚点球时的紧张心情可能会触发男球迷的心脏病发作和中风。96年的欧洲杯赛中,当荷兰队输给法国队时的当天,因心脏病发作及中风而死亡的人数提高了50%。

GROUP IDENTITY

Being an ardent fan could be simply the desire to belong to a group or a society — a need once answered by religion and politics. This explains why some fans remain loyal through thick and thin, and despite the repeated failure of their teams. Surrounding yourself at a match with people who so clearly espouse your own enthusiasms, and identifying your tribal membership with hats, scarves , Mexican waves and songs, makes you feel you belong as little else does. What's more, you're part of a group where no questions are asked, explanations are unnecessary and where you can always rely on support. With so many

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