On our first "date" after our twin daughters were born, my husband and I went to see the movie Toy Story. We enjoyed it, but afterward my husband asked, "Where was the dad?" At first, it seemed petty to criticize an entertaining family movie because of one small point. The more I thought about it, however, the more glaring an omission it seemed. Not only was dad not around, he wasn't even mentioned — despite the fact that there was a baby in the family, so dad couldn't have been that long gone. It was as if the presence—or absence —of a father is a minor detail, not even requiring an explanation.
This is only one example of the media trend toward marginalizing fathers, which mirrors enormous social changes in the United States. David Blankenhorn, in his book Fatherless America, refers to this trend as the "unnecessary father" concept.
We are bombarded by stories about the struggles of working mothers (as opposed to non-working mothers, I suppose). Meanwhile, a high proportion of media stories about fathers focus on abusive husbands or deadbeat dads. It seems that the only time fathers merit attention is when they are criticized for not helping enough with the housework (a claim that I find dubious anyway, because the definition of "housework" rarely includes cleaning the gutters, changing the oil in the car or other jobs typically done by men) or when they die. When Mr. Blankenhorn surveyed fathers about the meaning of the term "good family man," many responded that it was a phrase they only heard at funerals.
One exception to the "unnecessary father" syndrome is the glowing media attention that at-home dads have received. I do not mean to imply that at-home dads do not deserve support for making this commitment. I only mean to point out the double standard at work
when at-home dads are applauded while at-home mothers and breadwinner fathers are given little, if any, cultural recognition.
The very language we use to discuss men's roles (i.e., deadbeat dads) shows a lack of appreciation for the majority of men who quietly yet proudly fulfill their family responsibilities. We almost never hear the term "working father," and it is rare that calls for more workplace flexibility are considered to be for men as much as for women. Our society acts as if family obligations are not as important to fathers as they are to mothers —as if career satisfaction is what a man's life is all about.
Even more insulting is the recent media trend of regarding at-home wives as "status symbols" —like an expensive car —flaunted by the supposedly few men who can afford such a luxury. The implication is that men with at-home wives have it easier than those whose wives work outside the home because they have the "luxury" of a full-time housekeeper. In reality, however, the men who are the sole wage earners for their families suffer a lot of stresses. The loss of a job —or even the threat of that happening —is obviously much more difficult when that job is the sole source of income for a family. By the same token, sole wage earners have less flexibility when it comes to leaving unsatisfying careers because of the loss of income such a job change entails. In addition, many husbands work overtime or second jobs to make more money needed for their families. For these men, it is the family that the job supports that makes it all worthwhile. It is the belief that having a mother at home is important to the children, which makes so many men gladly take on the burden of being a sole wage earner.
Today, there is widespread agreement among researchers that the absence of fathers from households causes serious problems for children and, consequently, for society at large. Yet, rather than holding up "ordinary" fathers as positive role models for the dads of tomorrow, too often society has thrown up its hands and decided that traditional fatherhood is at best obsolete and at worst dangerously reactionary. This has left many men questioning the value of their role as fathers.
As a society, we need to realize that fathers are just as important to children as mothers are —not only for financial support, but for emotional support, education and discipline as well. It is not enough for us merely to recognize that fatherlessness is a problem —to stand beside the grave and mourn the loss of the "good family man" and then try to find someone to replace him (ask anyone who has lost a father to death if that is possible). We must acknowledge how we have devalued fatherhood and work to show men how necessary, how important they are in their children's lives.
Those fathers who strive to be good family men by being there every day to love and support their families —those unsung heroes —need our recognition and our thanks for all they do. Because they deserve it.
With his promotion ,he has taken on greater responsibilities.
2. 他感到他再没有必要对约翰承担这样的责任。(make a commitment)
He felt he did not have to make such a commitmentto John any more .
3. 闲暇时玛丽喜欢外出购物，与她相反，露茜却喜欢呆在家里看书。(as opposed to)
Mary likes go to shopping in her spare time ,as opposed to Lucy, who prefers to stay at home reading.
4. 充其量可以说他有抱负，用最糟糕的话来说，他是一个没有良心(conscience)或没有资格的权力追求者。(at best, at worst)
At best he's ambitious,at worst a power-seeker without conscience or qualifications .
5. 我们已尽全力说服他，但是却毫无进展。(strive，make no headway)
We have striven to the full to convince him,but we have made no headway.
Why Digital Culture Is Good for You?
The news media, along with social and behavioral scientists, have recently sent out a multitude of warnings about the many dangers that await us out there in cyberspace. The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. In fact, in and of itself, the Web is fairly harmless. It has no special power to overtake its users and alter their very existence. Like the old tale that the vampire cannot harm you unless you invite it to cross your threshold, the Internet cannot corrupt without being invited. And, with the exception of children and the weak-willed, it cannot create what does not already exist...
(1) Like alcohol, the Web simply magnifies what is already there: Experts are concerned that the masking that goes on online poses a danger for everyone who is a part of the Digital Culture. Before we know it, the experts tell us, we will all use fake identities, become fragmented, and will no longer be sure of just who we are. Wrong. The only people who feel compelled to mask, and otherwise misrepresent themselves online are the same people who are mysterious and unfrank in "real life”...the Net just give s them one more tool to practice their deceit.
As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. We know who these folks are in the "real world”. The Internet does not "cause”people to disguise as something they are not. As for the Digital Culture getting cheated by these dishonest folks, well, there are just as many "cues” online to decipher deception as there are in the "real world”. The competent WebHead can recognize many red flags given off by the online behavior of others. Oftentimes the intentions of fellow users is crystal clear, especially over time.
因为我们了解现实生活中的这些人，所以被这些人欺骗的可能性很小。因特网并不会"引起”人们去装扮成另一些人。至于数字文化中人被这些不诚实的家伙欺骗的问题，就如同"现实”生活中一样，网上同样有许多"信号”会揭露他们的骗术。有水平的网迷能识别在线人行为所发出的很多危险信号。尤其是经过一段时间之后，别的用户的意图常常是非常清楚的。When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying "too hard”or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clear. Likewise, just like in the "real world”, a host of other unacceptable tendencies can be readily recognized online. Narcissism (it’s all about "meeeee”), those p eople who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away.
(2) The Web can bring out the best in people: Gregarious, frank folks in "real life”usually carry these same traits over to their online life. Most are just as fun-loving online if not more so, as they are at a party, at work, or at the local bar. Though admittedly, some are not quite as much fun to be around without a stiff drink.
Shy folks have a "safer”environment online than in the "real world”and can learn to express themselves more freely on the Net (you’ve never seen anyone stutter on e-mail, have you?) allowing them to gain confidence and communication skills that can eventually spill over into other aspects of their lives. Helpful people in "real life”are often just as willing to come to someone’s assistance online as anywhere else.
(3) People are judged differently on the Web: On the Internet people are judged by their personality, beliefs and online actions, NOT by their physical appearance. This is good. It not only gives ugly folks an aid, but causes Beautiful People to have to say something worth listening to in order to get attention.
(4) People open up more: Many people are opening up a whole lot more these days since they are not required to use their real name and provide their real identity in the Internet.
(5) We’re connected: Members of the Digital Culture know full well that there is a wealth of important information and life-changing opportunities out there in cyberspace. The Web has opened doors for many of us that otherwise would never have been an option. Research possibilities and networking are just two such opportunities.
(6) We Learn the Power of Words and to be Better Listeners: With no facial expressions, body language, or physical appearance to distract us, members of the Digital Culture have learned the power of words ... both their own, and others’. We know very well how a simple string of words can harm, hurt and offend, or how they can offer humor, help, support and encouragement. Most experienced members of the online culture have learned to become wordsmiths, carefully crafting the words they use to convey exactly what they mean so as not to be misunderstood.
Many of us have also learned to become far better listeners thanks to the Internet. Not only do we choose our words more carefully but we (especially those who communicate via email as opposed to chat rooms) are forced to wait until the other person finishes before we can speak or
1. 要是他适合当校长，那么哪个学生都可以当。(no more...than)
He is no more fit to be a headmaster than any schoolboy would be.
2. 至于她的父亲，她不敢肯定是否会接收她和她的小孩。(as for)
As for her father, she is not sure whether he will accept her and her baby.
Staying up late will undermine one's health while going to bed early and getting up early will benefit it.
The ambassador personally conveyed the president's message to the premier.
5. 这个女孩决定敞开心扉，把她看见的一切都告诉警方。(open up)
The girl decided to open up and tell the police what she had seen.
1)"If it doesn’t have a copyright notice, it’s not copyrighted.” This was true in the past, but today almost all major nations follow the Berne copyright convention. For example, in the USA, almost everything created privately and originally after April 1, 1989 is copyrighted and protected whether it has a notice or not. The default you should assume for other people’s works is that they are copyrighted and may not be copied unless you know otherwise. There are some old works that lost protection without notice, but frankly you should not risk it unless you know for sure.
2) "If I don’t charge for it, it’s not a violation.”False. Whether you charge can affect the damages awarded in court, but that’s the main difference under the law. It’s still a violation if you give it away –and there can still be serious damages if you hurt the commercial value of the property. There is an exception for personal copying of music, which is not a violation, though courts seem to have s aid that doesn’t include wide-scale anonymous personal copying as Napster. If the work has no commercial value, the violation is mostly technical and is unlikely to result in legal action.
3) "If it’s posted to Usenet it’s in the public domain.”False. Nothing modern is in the public domain anymore unless the owner explicitly puts it in the public domain. Explicitly, as you have a note from the author/owner saying, "I grant this to the pub lic domain.”
4) "My posting was just fair use!”The "fair use”exemption to (U.S.) copyright law was created to allow things such as commentary, parody, news reporting, research and education about copyrighted works without the permission of the author. That’s important so that copyright law doesn’t block your freedom to express your own works. Intent and damage to the commercial value of the work are important considerations. Are you reproducing an article from the New York Times because you couldn’t f ind time to write your own story, or didn’t want your readers to have to pay for the New York Times web site? They aren’t "fair use”. Fair use is usually a short excerpt.
5) "If you don’t defend your copyright you lose it.”–"Somebody has that name copyrighted!”False. Copyright is effectively never lost these days, unless explicitly given away. You also can’t "copyright a name”or anything short like that, such as almost all titles. You may be thinking of trademarks, which apply to names, and can be weakened or lost if not defended. Like an "Apple” computer. Apple Computer "owns” that word applied to computers, even though it is also an ordinary word. Apple Records owns it when applied to music. Neither owns the word on its own, only in context, and owning a mark doesn’t mean complete control.
6)"If I make up my own stories, but base them on another work, my new work belongs to me.”False. U.S. Copyright law is quite explicit that the making of what are called "derivative works”–works based on or derived from another copyrighted work –is the exclusive province of the owner of the original work. This is true even though the making of these new works is a highly creative process. If you write a story using settings or characters from somebody else’s work, you need that author’s permission.
7)"They can’t get me,defendants in court have powerful rights!” Copyright law is mostly civil law. If you violate copyright you would not be charged with a crime, but usually get sued.
8) "Oh, so copyright violation isn’t a crime or anything?”Actually, recently in the USA commercial copyrightviolation involving more than 10 copies and value over $2500 was made a felony. So watch out. On the other hand, this is a fairly new, untested statute. In one c ase an operator of a pirate BBS that didn’t charge was acquitted because he didn’t charge, but congress amended the law to cover that.
9) "It doesn’t hurt anybody –in fact it’s free advertising.”It’s up to the owners to decide if they want the free ads or not. If they want them, they will be sure to contact you. Don’t rationalize whether it hurts the owners or not, ask them. Usually that’s not too hard to do. Even if you can’t think of how the author or owner gets hurt, think about the fact that piracy on the net hurts everybody who wants a chance to use this wonderful new technology to do more than read other people’s flamewars.
10) "They e-mailed me a copy, so I can post it.”To have a copy is not to have the copyright. All the E-mail you write is copyrighted. However, E-mail is not unless previously agreed. So you can certainly report on what E-mail you are sent, and reveal what it says. You can even quote parts of it to demonstrate. Frankly, somebody who sues over an ordinary message would almost surely get no damages, because the message has no commercial value, but if you want to stay strictly in the law, you should ask first. On the other hand, d on’t go nuts if somebody posts E-mail you sent them. If it was an ordinary non-secret personal letter of minimal commercial value with no copyright notice (like 99.9% of all E-mail), you probably won’t get any damages if you sue them.
It is simply unbelievable for him to charge 500 dollars for a haircut.
People grant you the privilege, so you should serve the people wholeheartedly.
3. 天气预报很重要，依据它我们才能决定什么时候出航。(so that)
The weather forecast is very important so that we can decide when to go to sea.
The sound of guns violated the usual calm of Sunday morning, and people had a strong feeling that the war was coming.
5. 即使你每分钟看3页，到本周末你无论如何也看不完这本书。(even though)
Even though you read three pages per minute, you will by no means finish the book by the end of this weekend.
The study of literature is not only civilized and civilizing —encompassing, as it does, philosophy, religion, the history of events and the history of ideas —but popular and practical. One-sixth of all those who receive bachelor’s degrees from the College of Arts and Sciences are English majors. These graduates qualify for a surprising range of jobs. Their experience puts the lie to the popular superstition that English majors must choose between journalism and teaching: in fact, English majors also receive excellent preparation for future careers in law, medicine, business, and government service.
Undergraduates looking forward to law school or medical school are often advised to follow a strict regimen of courses considered directly relevant to their career choices. Future law-school students are advised to take courses in political science, history, accounting, business administration —even human anatomy, and marriage and family life. Future medical school students are steered into multiple science courses —actually far more science courses than they need for entrance into medical school. Surprisingly, many law schools —and medical schools indicate that such specialized preparation is not only unnecessary, but undesirable. There are no "Pre-law” courses: the best preparation for law school — and for the practice of law — is that preparation which makes a student capable of critical thinking; of clear, logical self-expression; of sensitive analysis of the motives, the actions, and the thoughts of other human beings. These are skills which the study of English is designed to teach.
Entrance into law school, moreover, generally requires a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution, a minimum grade point average, and an acceptable score on The Law School Admission Test (LSAT). This test has three parts. The first evaluates skills in reading comprehension, in figure classification, and in the evaluation of written material. The second part of the test evaluates control of English grammar and usage, ability to organize written materials, and competence to edit. The third part evalu ates the student’s general knowledge of literature, art, music, and the natural and social sciences. Clearly an undergraduate major in English is strong preparation for the L.S.A.T.
As for medical schools, the main requirement for admission is only thirty-two hours of science courses. This requirement is certainly no impediment to a major in English. Moreover many medical schools require a minimum score on the Medical College Admission Test,
another test which offers an advantage to the well-rounded liberal arts student. The M.C.A.T. evaluates four areas of competence: skill with synonyms, s, and word association; knowledge of basic mathematics from fractions through solid geometry; general knowledge of literature, philosophy, psychology, music, art, and the social sciences; and familiarity with those fundamentals of biology, chemistry, and physics taught in high school and in introductory college courses. The English major with a solid, basic grounding in science is well prepared for this test and for medical school, where his or her skills in reading, analysis, interpretation, and precise communication will equip him or her to excel. The study and practice of medicine can only benefit from the insights into human behavior provided by the study of literature.
Such insights are obviously also valuable to the student who plans a career in commerce. Such students should consider the advantages of an English major with an emphasis in business: this program is designed to provide a liberal education, as well as to direct preparation for a business career. The need for such a program is clear: graduates with merely technical qualifications are finding jobs in business, but often failing to hold them. Both the Wall Street Journal and the Journal of College Placement have reported that increasing numbers of graduates from reputable business schools find themselves drifting from one job or firm to another, unable to hold a position for longer than twelve months. Employers complain that these apparently promising young men and women are simply not competent communicators: because they are not sufficiently literate, they cannot absorb managerial training; they cannot make effective oral presentations; they cannot report progress or problems in their writing; they cannot direct other workers. Skill in analysis and communication is the essence of management.
Consequently the English major with an emphasis in business is particularly well prepared for a future in business administration. Nearly four hundred companies in fields ranging from banking and insurance to communications to manufacturing were asked whether they hired college graduates with degrees in English, even when those graduates lacked special training in the industry: Eighty-five percent of the companies said that they did. College graduates with degrees in English are working successfully in marketing, in systems engineering, in personnel management, in sales, in programming, in project design, and in labor relations.
English majors are also at work in the thousand occupations provided by government at all levels. Consider, for example, the federal government —by a very wide margin, America’s biggest employer. In organizations ranging from the Marine Corps to the Bureau of Mines, from the Commerce Department to the National Park Service, the federal government employs a work force of nearly three million men and women. English majors may qualify for many of these jobs. Recently, 51 federal agencies were asked the same question: whether they hired college graduates with English degrees but without special job training, 88 percent of these federal employers said yes. The list of federal positions for which English majors may qualify ranges from Claims Examiner to Foreign Service Officer to Highway Safety Management Specialist. Again, those who seek positions of high reward and responsibility may be asked to take a test —the federal government uses the Professional and Administrative Career Examination, or P.A.C.E., to evaluate applicants for about 10 000 jobs each year —and again, the test focuses on language skills: comprehension, analysis, interpretation, the ability to see logical relationships between ideas, and the ability to solve problems expressed in words. Not surprisingly, competent English majors often receive very high scores on the P.A.C.E.
In short, a major in English is neither restricting nor impractical: the study of English is excellent preparation for professional life.
Young as my sister is, she already knows for sure what career she is going to follow.
My uncle, whose photo I showed you yesterday, will come to see us this afternoon.
3. 正是由于英语这门语言的功能非常灵活，才使得英语成为一种全球性的语言。(It is ...that...)
It is because of its very functional flexibility that makes English become a global language.
4. 我们很高兴代表我们研究中心向你们海外客人致意。(in the name of)
In the name of our research center we are very glad to pass on our greetings to you，our overseas guests.
This new engine is superior to the old ones in that it consumes much less fuel.
As for the moral advantage in business, of all places, everyone knows a modicum of ethics is called for in any business — you can't cheat your customers forever and get away with it. But wouldn't it be more advantageous if you actually could get away with it? Profits would soar out of sight! Then you would really have an advantage, or so the thinking might go.
The notion of seeking the moral advantage is a new way of thinking about ethics and virtue in business, an approach that does not accept the need for trade-offs between ambition and conscience. Far from obstructing the drive for success, a sense of moral purpose can help individuals and companies achieve at the highest —and most profitable —levels.
Cynicism dominates our attitudes about what it takes to succeed in business. A common way of thinking about morality in business goes something like this:
Ethical conduct is an unpleasant medicine that society forces down business people's throats to protect the public interest from business avarice.
Morality gets in the way of the cold, hard actions truly ambitious Skepticism people must take to reach their goals.
Moneymaking is inevitably tainted by greed, deceit, and exploitation.
The quest for profits stands in opposition to everything that is moral, fair, decent, and charitable.
Skepticism about moneymaking goes back a long way. The Bible warns that it's harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. "Behind every great fortune," wrote French novelist Honoréde Balzac in the 1800s, "lies a great crime." British author G. K. Chesterton sounded the same theme in the early 20th century, noting that a businessman "is the only man who is forever apologizing for his occupation."
The contemporary media often characterize business as nothing more than a self-serving exercise in greed, carried out in as corrupt and ruthless a manner as possible. In television and movies, moneymaking in business is tainted by avarice, exploitation, or downright villainy. The unflattering portrayals have become even more pointed over time. In 1969, the businessman in Philip Roth's Goodbye, Columbus advises the story's protagonist, "To get by in business, you've got to be a bit of a thief." He seems like a gently wise, figure compared with Wall Street's 1980s icon, Gordon Gekko, whose immortal words were "Greed is good."
Yet some important observers of business see things differently. Widely read gurus such as Stephen Covey and Tom Peters point to the practical utility of moral virtues such as compassion, responsibility, fairness, and honesty. They suggest that virtue is an essential ingredient in the recipe for success, and that moral standards are not merely commendable choices but necessary components of a thriving business career. This is a frequent theme in commencement addresses and other personal testimonials: Virtuous behavior advances a career in the long run by building trust and reputation, whereas ethical shortcomings eventually derail careers. The humorist Dorothy Parker captured this idea in one of her signature quips: "Time wounds all heels.
So who's right --- those who believe that morality and business are mutually exclusive, or those who believe they reinforce one another? Do nice guys finish last, or are those who advocate doing well by doing good the real winners? Is the business world a group of thievery or a haven for upstanding citizens?
With colleagues Howard Gardner at Harvard University and MihalyCsikszentmihalyi at Claremont Graduate University, I've examined this question by interviewing 40 top business leaders, such as McDonald's CEO Jack Greenberg and the late Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, between 1998 and 2000 as part of our joint "Project on Good Work." We found that a strong sense of moral purpose not only promotes a business career but also provides a telling advantage in the quest to build a thriving enterprise. In fact, a sense of moral purpose stands at the center of all successful business innovations. Far from being a constraining force that merely keeps people honest and out of trouble, morality creates a fertile source of business motivation, inspiration, and innovation.
This is different from the view of morality you'll encounter in a typical business-ethics course. It's so different that I now speak about moralities, in the plural, when discussing the role of virtue and ethics in business. Morality in business has three distinct faces including moral warning,charitable feeling and moral initiatives, each playing its own special role in ensuring business success.
1.他们登上的飞机起飞后立刻就消失了。(soar, out of sight)
The airplane they boarded soared out of sight as soon as it took off.
2. 在会上,保守派反对提出的改革建议。(in opposition to)
At the meeting, the two sides had a very hot debate. The reformers put forward many reforming measures, but conservatives were in opposition to the proposed changes.
3. 从长远看,我们必须学习更多的科技知识，除了我们的专业课程之外，懂得计算机、英语和驾驶是我们工作中必不可少的。(in a long run)
In the long run, we should learn more about science and technology. Besides the major subject, the knowledge of computers, English and driving is necessary in our work.
4. 为练成完美的体型,她每周做四次健身操。(in quest)
She does gymnastic exercises four times a week in quest to achieve the perfect body.
5.每天早晨，一些老人在公园里一边锻炼身体一边聊天。(at the same time)
Every the morning in the park some old people are doing physical exercises there, chatting with each other.
Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reaches the depths of despair when they lose. Scientific studies show the love affair with a team may be as emotionally intense as the real thing, and that team clashes have gladiatorial power.
What's going on? Why do fervent fans have hormonal surges and other psychological changes while watching games? Why does fans' self-esteem soar with victory and plummet in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards? Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? Is avidly rooting for a team good or bad for your health? You may find the answers surprising.
THE FAN'S PERSONALITY
Psychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team,2 but a study suggests the opposite. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation than people who never watch Match Of The Day. Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond. It's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time when warriors fighting to protect their tribes were the true representatives of their race. In modern times, so the theory goes, professional sportsmen are warriors of a city or country fighting a stylized war waged on a football pitch.
IT'S WAR OUT THERE
Some confrontations on the pitch are gladiatorial. In this respect, our sports heroes are our gladiators. A football match, especially between rival teams, isn't some light-hearted display of athletic prowess. The self is emotionally involved in the outcome because whoever you're rooting for represents YOU. So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. It could even be that these emotions have fueled the explosion in the popularity of sports over the past 20 years.一场战争
STATUS BY PROXY
So, through football matches, it becomes possible to gain respect from your rivals, albeit vicariously . This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. Or, if you like, by your connection to individual footballers for their skill, such as midfielder David Beckham, winger Ryan Giggs, and striker Thierry Henry.
The connection, however, can be fickle. Bragging sports fans tend to claim credit for their team's success, saying "we won" to describe a victory, but distance themselves from a team's failure, saying "they lost" describing a defeat.
LOYAL TO THE END
A raft of studies has found that "highly-identified" fans —both men and women —are unlikely to abandon a team when it's doing badly. Anyone who's read Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby knows that this is true of the ardent Arsenal fan. Not only that, they tend to blame
their team's failures on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenal's mistakes or the other team's skill. It's not surprising that these avid fans get more psychologically aroused at games and spend more money on tickets and merchandise.
IS TESTOSTERONE A FACTOR?
Testosterone levels in male fans rise markedly after a victory but drop just as sharply after a defeat. Apparently the same pattern has been documented in male animals who fight over a female. Biologists think that the human animal may have evolved this way to end conflicts quickly. If so, it provides an interesting biological explanation of football hooliganism after big matches. Science backs up this theory. Testosterone levels were measured in 21 Italian and Brazilian men in Atlanta before and after Brazil's victory over Italy in soccer's 1994 World Cup. The Brazilians' testosterone rose 28 per cent on average, while the Italians' levels dropped 27 per cent.
CAN BEING A FAN DAMAGE YOUR HEALTH?
Yes, it can. Indeed it can be fatal. The tension felt by football fans during penalty shoot-outs can trigger heart attacks and strokes in male spectators. On the day Holland lost to France in Euro 96, deaths there from heart attacks and strokes rose by 50 per cent.
Being an ardent fan could be simply the desire to belong to a group or a society — a need once answered by religion and politics. This explains why some fans remain loyal through thick and thin, and despite the repeated failure of their teams. Surrounding yourself at a match with people who so clearly espouse your own enthusiasms, and identifying your tribal membership with hats, scarves , Mexican waves and songs, makes you feel you belong as little else does. What's more, you're part of a group where no questions are asked, explanations are unnecessary and where you can always rely on support. With so many