1. 随着职务的提升，他担负的责任也更大了。(take on)
With his promotion, he has taken on greater responsibilities.
2.他感到没有必要再一次对约翰承担这样的责任了。(make a commitment)
He felt he did not have to make such a commitment to John any more.
3.闲暇时玛丽喜欢外出购物，与她相反，露茜却喜欢待在家里看书。(as opposed to)
Mary likes to go shopping in her spare time, as opposed to Lucy, who prefers to stay at home reading
4.说得好听一些，可以说他有抱负，用最糟糕的话来说，他是一个没有良心(conscience) 且没有资格的权力追求者。(at best, at worst)
At best he 's ambitious, and at worst a power-seeker without conscience or qualifications.
5.我们已尽全力想说服他，但是却毫无进展。(strive, make no headway)
We have striven to the full to convince him, but we have made no headway.
It seems that the only time he felt good about himself was when he was bowling.
One exception to the “no-tipping rule” is the hotel staff.
Many of these youngsters know the job in theory but they’re still wet behind the ears when it comes to putting it into practice.
4.今天，在顶级公关运营商中间存在着一种广泛的共识，认为法庭和媒体的对峙不能再继续下去。Today, there is widespread agreement among top PR operators that the stand-off between courts and the media can not continue.
As for everyone, one thing is certain, not only do we have to sleep, but it is good for your mind and body as well.
1 n times +名词或+ that of ..., n times as ... as ... 或v + n times等可译成“是...的n倍”或“比...增加n–1倍”。
e.g. The output of cars this year is about three times as great as that of last year.
2 n times +“增加”意义的比较级+ than ...可译成“净增加...或...倍”。
e.g. The irrigated area in this prefecture is four times bigger than in 1998.
3 “增加”意义的动词+ by ...可译成“增加了……”；“增加”意义的动词+ by a factor of ...可译成“增加了n–1倍”；
增加意义的动词+ to ... 可译成“增加到……或……倍”或“增加了n–1倍”。
e.g. The value of our industrial output this year has increased five times as compared with that of ten years
The rate of inflation has increased by 3%.
4 Double, treble, quadruple, n + fold等表示的倍数可译成“是……的n倍”或“增加了n–1倍”。
e.g. The efficiency of the machine has been more than trebled.
1 n times as +“减少”意义的原级+ as ..., n times + “减少”意义的比较级+ than ... , “减少”意义的动词+ n times等，
可译成“比...减少(n–1) / n”、“减少了(n–1) / n”、“是...1/n”、“减少到1/n”(若n中有小数点，则要换算成不带小数点的分数或百分数)。
e.g. The length of the laser tube was reduced ten times.
This kind of film is twice thinner than ordinary paper, but its quality is quite good.
2 “减少”意义的动词+ by可译成“减少...”、“减少n–1/n”或“减少到1/n”；减少意义的动词+ by a factor of可译成
“减少n–1 / n”或“减少到1/n”；减少意义的动词+ to可译成“减少到...”。
e.g. The load resistance is reduced by a factor of 5.
The company has reduced its work force from more than 15 000 to 10 000.
该公司将其工作人员从15 000多人裁减到10 000人。
1. 宪法规定公民享有言论自由。(provide for)
Answer: The Constitution provides for citizen’s freedom of speech.
2. 我们在如何养育孩子的问题上有截然不同的看法，因此常发生争吵。(grow out of; bring up) Answer: Our constant quarrels grew out of the diverse ideas on how to bring up children.
3. 我们早在会阅读之前就已经掌握了一些词汇。(long before)
Answer: We have learned some words long before we can read.
4. 很多中国家长认为孩子越早上学越好。(the more ... the more)
Answer: Many Chinese parents think that the earlier children go to school, the better.
Answer: The new tax law is not to punish the rich. Rather it is to bring justice and opportunity to the poor
Answer: It is extremely unusual to get anything resembling accurate information about the
status of your application.
Answer: It is taken for granted that everyone is equal before the law.
Answer: There is nothing more complicated than that about Americans tipping, eating in restaurants, living in hotels or taking a taxi.
Answer: You must have seen these large birds called eagles, feasting on their prey, either on the ground, or high up on tree tops.
Answer: Experts have no doubt that these drugs will go a long way in further strengthening our national response to HIV and AIDS.
1. ten thousand: 万one hundred thousand: 十万one hundred million: 亿
one billion: 十亿ten billion: 百亿；
2. hundreds of: 数百thousands of: 成千上万tens of thousands of: 千千万万
millions of: 数百万；千百万millions of millions of: 亿万
decades: 几十(年) scores: 好几十；大量dozens: 数打，数十。
ton: 吨gram: 克foot: 英尺inch: 英寸
a piece of news: 一则消息 a colony of ants: 一窝蚂蚁 a cake of soap: 一块肥皂
a chair: 一把椅子 a horse: 一匹马 a tree: 一棵树
A red sun rose slowly from the calm sea.
1. 你应该及时掐掉凋谢的花朵。(pluck off)
Answer: You should pluck off the dead fl owers in time.
2. 我认为你所说的实在算不上一个答案。(qualify as)
Answer: I don’t think what you said really qualifi es as an answer.
Answer: Our shouts echoed through the silent streets.
Answer: There is no doubt that his grades have improved and his interest in learning has revived.
5. 史密斯夫妇已经向离婚法院正式申请离婚。(file for)
Answer: The Smiths have fi led for divorce in the divorce court.
Answer: It is of course a ridiculous fancy. Being a tycoon is the last thing I imagine and also
a thing I utterly despise.
Answer: The researchers say that children under stress at home can cause problems in the classroom, which ultimately hurts all the students’ ability to learn.
Answer: A study in the medical journal echoes the warning of an impending health catastrophe brought about by the financial crisis, saying there are signs of a sharp rise in mental health problems and suicide.
Answer: When pupils are practicing cheating for the purpose of obtaining better school marks than they deserve, they are surely training themselves for lives of deceit and dishonesty. 5.如果没有交通规则，人们如何在公路上开小轿车、大巴或其他交通工具？
Answer: Would people be able to drive a car, a bus and any other vehicle on the roadway if there were no traffic regulations?
The use of negatives in English is very flexible and delicate. The following tips will help you to handle the translation.
1 否定成分的转移The object did not move because I pushed on it.
2 形式否定Nobody could be too foolish this day.
3 双重否定Without substance, there could be no force.
She is not a little interested in computer games.
4 部分否定Everything is not straightened out.
5 强调否定The outcome of the experiment was not half bad.
6 含蓄否定The report lacks detail.
1. 我爷爷虽然70岁了，但他的爱好广泛，从下国际象棋到爬山，多种多样。(range from ... to) Answer: My grandfather’s interests range from playing chess to climbing mountains although he is 70 years old.
Answer: Surprisingly, Tom’s grandmother plays with dolls at the age of 80.
3. 他大公无私的精神和天赋使他适合担当大多数学生梦想得到的那项工作。(qualify for)
Answer: His selflessness and talent qualify him for the job most students dream to get. 4.你如何解释他的那个怪梦？(interpretation)
Answer: What interpretation would you put on his odd / strange dream?
5. 我们老板刚买的新轿车一小时能行驶200公里。(be capable of)
Answer: The brand-new car our boss has just bought is capable of making 200 kilometers an hour.
Answer: Justice must not only be done, but it must be seen to be done.
Answer: The main impediment to development is the country’s huge foreign debt.
Answer: Politicians say a lot but often failing to tell us what they really mean.
Answer: Don’t complain that life is unfair to you because life simply does not know who you are.
Answer: Diversified products range from electronics components to assembly machinery.
1) This is the scientist who just returned from the North Pole.
2) The sun, which had hidden in the cloud all day, now came out in its entire splendor.
3) Without rubber there would be no such automobiles as we have today.
1) I knew that Mary would tell the story to her mother, who would probably tell it to John.
2) They worked out a new method by which production has now been rapidly increased.
3) Machine tools have various uses, one of which is to make holes in metal.
1. 产品广告中的说明必须符合产品的实际质量。(conform to)
Answer: The explanation in the advertisement of the product must conform to its actual quality.
2. 新的见解有望为我们探索应对这种情况的新方法铺平道路。(pave the way for)
Answer: New insights will hopefully pave the way for us to explore new ways of treating this condition.
3. 谚语来源于生活，是一个民族的语言和文化的浓缩和体现。(derive from)
Answer: Proverbs, which derive from life, are the condensation and embodiment of the language and culture of a nation.
Answer: The emotional relationship has been haunting her with no end in sight.
Answer: Admittedly, the right price for this unique commodity is hard to discern.
Answer: We agree that he had nothing to be praised for other than what he had done for his son.
2.很多企业不把商业道德当回事儿，这比任何违法的商业行为给世界经济所带来的危害都要大。Answer: That many enterprises don’t take business ethics seriously can be more destructive to world economy than any illegal commercial action.
Answer: The hospitality of the Chinese finds its ultimate expression in the grand feasts during the Spring Festival.
Answer: This loan of money from the World Bank provides financial guarantee that enables more children to have better facilities in school.
Answer: It is less a scientific research about equal education opportunity than it is a call for public attention to the development of the poor.
Examples You may leave it to us two.
This is Mr Zhou, director of our hospital.
She seemed different from them all.
This theory was advanced by Li Siguang, a famous Chinese geologist.
Examples Then arose the question where we were to get the machines needed.
They visited eight cities, for example, London and Paris.
3. 在某些涵义需要进一步说明的名词(如idea, fact, news, hope, belief, thought, doubt等) 后可用
Examples I had no idea that you were here.
Obviously there was little probability t hat they would succeed, but they didn’t
1.她将她的少年时代描绘成一个幻想和发现的时期。(portray ... as)
Answer:She portrayed her childhood as a time of wonder and discovery.
2. 试验表明，不抽烟的人比抽烟的人犯的错误要少。(fewer ... than)
Answer:Experiments showed that nonsmokers committed fewer errors than smokers.
3. 足球迷经常受到人们的重视，不是因为他们自身的成功，而是因为他们支持的球队获得了胜利。(not ...
Answer:Football fans are often highly regarded not for their own achievement, but through
their connection to a team that wins.
Answer:Despite the actors’ wonderfu l acting, the three-hour movie could not hold our
Answer:Professor Wang is the only doctor I can rely on to save my son
1. 当我们知道有人从这次洪水中幸存下来时激动得都要飞起来，但当我们怎么也找不到失踪的那几个同学时，心情也跌至了谷底Answer:1. We hit the heights when we got the news that someone survived the flood and reach the
depths of despair when we can not find the classmates lost in this accident.
Answer:The opportunities for us to win the match are much fewer than those who practice often,
Answer:What we did is not for fame or fortune of ourselves, but for the hopes of more people.
Answer:He blamed his poor performance in school on his poor family background, rather that on his own laziness.
Answer:One of the difficulties college students face is how to apply what they have learned in school to practice.
That he is still alive is sheer luck.
John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday.
The fact is that he has not been seen recently.
The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.
1) It is ＋名词＋从句It is a fact that ... 事实是?；
It is an honor that ... ?非常荣幸；
It is common knowledge that ... ?是常识
It is ＋形容词＋从句
It is natural that ... 很自然?；
It is strange that ... 奇怪的是?
It seems that ... 似乎?；
It happened that ... 碰巧?
It is reported that ... 据报道?；
It has been proved that ... 已证实?
wh-词包括who, whom, whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等连接代词和
Examples How the book will sell depends on its author.
In one’s own home one can do what one likes.
The club will give whoever wins a prize.
My question is who will take over presidency of the Foundation.
She will name him whatever she wants to.
I have no idea when he will return.
I’m not sure why she refused their invitation.
That depends on where we shall go.
Examples It is not yet decided who will do that job.
It remains unknown when they are going to get married.
Examples What you need is ...
How ＋从句＋is up to you.?
Where ＋主语＋谓语＋is none of your business.
Why ＋主语＋谓语＋is a secret.
It is not clear who ...
1) think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到了主句中，即主句的谓语动词用否定式，而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。
I don’t think I know you.
I don’t believe he will come.
It doesn’t seem that they know where to go.
It doesn’t appear that we’ll have a sunny day tomorrow.
Example It’s not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里，人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。
Answer:I have no inkling about the examination results, we shall have to wait and see.
2. 我不知道到底发生了什么事，但是他们一小时前就该到达这里的。(suppose to)
Answer:I don’t know what happened, but they were supposed to be here an hour ago.
Answer:The color of the shirt he is wearing today does not match that of his tie.
Answer:After years of preparation and accumulation, I have committed to a writing career fi nally.
5. 我已经告诉我的孩子们要学着把自己的抽屉清理好。(clear out)
Answer:I have asked my kids to learn to clear out their drawers
Answer:I didn’t realize then that the thing taking place in America which is 10 thousand miles away would be known by the villagers here so soon.
Answer:It took the three-year-experience of living abroad for me to learn interpersonal communication principles.
Answer:I have learned that in computer, as in any super market, everything should be systematically arranged.
Answer:The company that is hotly discussed in mass media is our cooperator and we, like many other costumers, will closely see how things progress.
Answer:When we have realized our responsibility, what we should do is to confront various challenges.
语序1) He always goes wherever he is in urgent need.
2) She passed the CET 4 because she had studied very hard.
3) Chongqing has undergone great changes since it became a municipality.
4) We would have accomplished the task much easier if you had come to help us.
5) You shouldn’t have given up so early, though you met with a lot of difficulty.
省略1) Please let me know in case you need my help.
( ) 如果需要帮助，请告知我。
2) As soon as you get the order, you should set out immediately.
( ) 一旦接到命令，你应该立即出发。
3) We might have a rest after we finish the project.
( ) 完成这个项目，我们可以休息一下。
4) He didn’t come to class because he was seriously injured in the football match.
( ) 他在足球比赛中严重受伤，( ) 没来上课。
5) Rich as you are, you shouldn’t look down upon the poor.
你虽然有钱，( ) 也不应该瞧不起穷人。
1.无论我们遇到什么样的困难，我们都应该想办法克服它。(overcome) Answer:No matter what difficulties we come across, we should try our best to overcome them.
Answer:Respecting the old and caring for the young is a traditional Chinese virtue. 3. 今天，各行各业的人都在努力提高自己的知识水平以便跟上时代的发展。(all walks of life)
Answer:Today, people from all walks of life are trying to acquire more knowledge to keep pace with the development of the times.
4. 孩子们特别喜欢卡通片。(have a fancy for / take a fancy to)
Answer:Children have a fancy for cartoons.
5. 鉴于他们缺乏经验，这工作他们做得不错。(given that)
Answer:Given that they are lacking in experience / inexperienced / green hand, they have done a good job
Answer:She ran into a dilemma when she had to make a choice between family and her career.
Answer:But while I admit that the problems are difficult, I don't agree that they can't be solved.
Answer:Since he had committed such a serious crime, it seemed natural that he should be severely punished.
Answer:If you really want to impress your boss, you should have some original ideas. 5.这一现象并不令人吃惊，考虑到他们为克服这些困难所做出的辛苦努力的话。
Answer:This is not surprising, given that they have made painstaking effort to overcome the difficulties.
1.顺译法：A partition runs down the center of the heart, dividing it into left and right sections which work at the same time but deal with two different types of blood.
一道隔膜穿过心脏中间，把心脏分成左右两个部分，两个部分同时活动，但却处理两种类型的血液。2.逆译法: What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose their professional identity than to step out of uniform?
3.分译法: But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as with it is in itself a huge victory.